Vakblad natuurbeheer - special issue - grazing and grazing animals (part 6)
E F F E C T S O F A N T H E L M I N T I C S
Gerard A.J.M. Jagers op Akkerhuis and Henk Siepel, Alterra
Despite all our good intentions, we nature managers sometimes make mis-
takes without understanding it until later. One example of this is the practice
of worming livestock which graze in nature areas. Manure excreted by treated
animals contains traces of anthelmintics, which is tracked down most selec-
tively and effectively by insects such as dung beetles. Dung beetles lay their
eggs in the fresh manure, but their newly hatched larvae are killed by the drug
residues. The result is that there is no new generation of dung beetles.
Mortality is extremely high because of the high efficiency with which dung
beetles detect fresh manure. The same dramatic effect may also occur on
extensive and popular networks of bridleways in nature areas.
specifically of the effects of these drugs
have been scientifically established.
to the biodiversity of manure fauna.
yet, little is known about the toxicity of
are available as injectable preparations,
have negative effects on manure fauna.
Although little knowledge is available of
of the individual in it. Specifically, our
Large herbivores should behave more naturally in their natural surroundings.
But what exactly is natural behaviour in animals that have been domesticated
for generations? Ethologists study the behaviour of large herbivores in nature
archical line. Bulls literally fight their
areas and ask site managers: what is it you want; do you want to adapt the ani-
hierarchy. The status of top-ranking bull
mal to its natural surroundings or the surroundings to the animal?
the most favourable wins to losses ratio.
mal's position in the hierarchy, so that
often than the numbers two or three.
the state of the animals' welfare. For an
ethics, which is a set of moral principles
that governs a person's behaviour.
about the only way to assess its welfare.
the way the animal feels in its surround-
will go and find it. Extrinsic stimuli also
rain, or if a pack of wolves is approach-
University have studied the social struc-
run away. Obviously all kinds of internal
outwardly a response is first visible by a
reserve. Both before and after his intro-
his behaviour that might indicate stress.
This illustrates how fairly simple obser-
lion's introduction. It takes some effort
but the answer to 'How is Khaan doing'
Ethology studies look into social structure, cow-calf relationships, the creation of
crèches and how bulls communicate and interacts with each other.
often completed within one generation.
'De-domestication', 'feralisation', 'naturalisation' or just simply adapting?
vival is at stake. Fear of man and a ten-
In dogs it does not seem to work at all.
tive qualities. It won't however be easy
people for food. Genetic alterations as a
cularly not if our requirements for their
them 'wild' in the sense of 'untamed'
but not 'wild' in the sense of 'savage'.
mal's adaptation to the conditions of a
nature reserve. It is a slow process that
ethical views, the availability of suitable
their 'wildness'. This begs the question
for natural grazing in our nature areas.
access, although it is done in Poland. In
tame and less dangerous to the public.
tion. The British term naturalisation can
that these animals will eventually return
which have 'gone wild' can be found all
animals to return to their natural state,
Michiel Korthals, J. Keulartz, H. van den Belt, I. Klaver and
These days, nature is often a manmade product. By our actions, our interven-
vant processes. Animals will have to sur-
tions, nature recedes, develops or evolves. We feel a sense of stewardship, of
responsibility towards nature. Introducing animals in nature areas seemed like
a natural thing to do. And it seemed so easy. But what are we to do when the
animals that we introduced encounter hardship? Are we to help wild animals,
thus in effect domesticating them? Or should we leave them to die because by
our definition they are wild creatures? In situations of life and death, ethical
dilemmas inevitably arise. In this article, we introduce the principle of self-
reliance and make an appeal for ethical pluralism.
been going on for thousands of years.
take place in nature. But nature is also a
all fight for domination of their view on
natural state fairly quickly, but whether
ished. It is better to talk about feralisa-
and acquire a degree of 'wildness'.
'Naturalness' brings with it the risk of injury. But we can depend on the self-reliance
three various issues at three levels. The
species: is it a rare species, what consti-
ciple of self-reliance concerns questions
at this level. The third and last level is
is it sustainable, what is the direction of
Heck cattle scrape together their own food and can easily live to the ripe old age
its characteristics and functioning.
herd as a whole to live in a certain area.
species or an ecosystem. It is on ethical
herd size and presence of other species.
it: a flamboyant flower, a proud stag.
plea for a new principle, that of respect
veterinary practitioners, and whose lives
librium, new possibilities. Concepts such
reliance is a reflection of our knowledge
criterion. The principle is not based on a
vores is best illustrated by Vera's theory
this issue). In his view, the role of herbi-
scientists reject his theory, stating that
We can see from the black stripe down this young Konik horse's back and the zebra-
type pattern on its front legs that it is already fairly de-domesticated.
not have any real consequences for us.
feeding in the fields, one and all, are to
basis for respect is often based on direct
beautiful. It is because of this aesthetic
help a species or system of living things,
nature should look like. This principle is
existence of these three approaches.
tial wildness in a long-distance relation-
never dictate obligations. This is deftly
basis of pluralism as described above.
M. Korthals, J. Keulartz, H. van den Belt,
of Social Science, Applied Philosophy.
express our appreciation for its beauty.
There is usually no ulterior interest for
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