Vakblad natuurbeheer - special issue - grazing and grazing animals (part 6)

E F F E C T S O F A N T H E L M I N T I C S Gerard A.J.M. Jagers op Akkerhuis and Henk Siepel, Alterra Despite all our good intentions, we nature managers sometimes make mis- takes without understanding it until later. One example of this is the practice of worming livestock which graze in nature areas. Manure excreted by treated animals contains traces of anthelmintics, which is tracked down most selec- tively and effectively by insects such as dung beetles. Dung beetles lay their eggs in the fresh manure, but their newly hatched larvae are killed by the drug residues. The result is that there is no new generation of dung beetles.
Mortality is extremely high because of the high efficiency with which dung beetles detect fresh manure. The same dramatic effect may also occur on extensive and popular networks of bridleways in nature areas.
specifically of the effects of these drugs have been scientifically established.
to the biodiversity of manure fauna.
yet, little is known about the toxicity of are available as injectable preparations, have negative effects on manure fauna.
Although little knowledge is available of of the individual in it. Specifically, our Large herbivores should behave more naturally in their natural surroundings.
But what exactly is natural behaviour in animals that have been domesticated for generations? Ethologists study the behaviour of large herbivores in nature archical line. Bulls literally fight their areas and ask site managers: what is it you want; do you want to adapt the ani- hierarchy. The status of top-ranking bull mal to its natural surroundings or the surroundings to the animal? the most favourable wins to losses ratio.
mal's position in the hierarchy, so that often than the numbers two or three.
the state of the animals' welfare. For an ethics, which is a set of moral principles that governs a person's behaviour.
about the only way to assess its welfare.
the way the animal feels in its surround- will go and find it. Extrinsic stimuli also rain, or if a pack of wolves is approach- University have studied the social struc- run away. Obviously all kinds of internal outwardly a response is first visible by a reserve. Both before and after his intro- his behaviour that might indicate stress.
This illustrates how fairly simple obser- lion's introduction. It takes some effort but the answer to 'How is Khaan doing' Ethology studies look into social structure, cow-calf relationships, the creation of crèches and how bulls communicate and interacts with each other.
often completed within one generation.
'De-domestication', 'feralisation', 'naturalisation' or just simply adapting? vival is at stake. Fear of man and a ten- In dogs it does not seem to work at all.
tive qualities. It won't however be easy people for food. Genetic alterations as a cularly not if our requirements for their them 'wild' in the sense of 'untamed' but not 'wild' in the sense of 'savage'.
mal's adaptation to the conditions of a nature reserve. It is a slow process that ethical views, the availability of suitable their 'wildness'. This begs the question for natural grazing in our nature areas.
access, although it is done in Poland. In tame and less dangerous to the public.
tion. The British term naturalisation can that these animals will eventually return which have 'gone wild' can be found all animals to return to their natural state, Michiel Korthals, J. Keulartz, H. van den Belt, I. Klaver and These days, nature is often a manmade product. By our actions, our interven- vant processes. Animals will have to sur- tions, nature recedes, develops or evolves. We feel a sense of stewardship, of responsibility towards nature. Introducing animals in nature areas seemed like a natural thing to do. And it seemed so easy. But what are we to do when the animals that we introduced encounter hardship? Are we to help wild animals, thus in effect domesticating them? Or should we leave them to die because by our definition they are wild creatures? In situations of life and death, ethical dilemmas inevitably arise. In this article, we introduce the principle of self- reliance and make an appeal for ethical pluralism.
been going on for thousands of years.
take place in nature. But nature is also a all fight for domination of their view on natural state fairly quickly, but whether ished. It is better to talk about feralisa- and acquire a degree of 'wildness'.
'Naturalness' brings with it the risk of injury. But we can depend on the self-reliance three various issues at three levels. The species: is it a rare species, what consti- ciple of self-reliance concerns questions at this level. The third and last level is is it sustainable, what is the direction of Heck cattle scrape together their own food and can easily live to the ripe old age its characteristics and functioning.
herd as a whole to live in a certain area.
species or an ecosystem. It is on ethical herd size and presence of other species.
it: a flamboyant flower, a proud stag.
plea for a new principle, that of respect veterinary practitioners, and whose lives librium, new possibilities. Concepts such reliance is a reflection of our knowledge criterion. The principle is not based on a vores is best illustrated by Vera's theory this issue). In his view, the role of herbi- scientists reject his theory, stating that We can see from the black stripe down this young Konik horse's back and the zebra- type pattern on its front legs that it is already fairly de-domesticated.
not have any real consequences for us.
feeding in the fields, one and all, are to basis for respect is often based on direct beautiful. It is because of this aesthetic help a species or system of living things, nature should look like. This principle is existence of these three approaches.
tial wildness in a long-distance relation- never dictate obligations. This is deftly basis of pluralism as described above.
M. Korthals, J. Keulartz, H. van den Belt, of Social Science, Applied Philosophy.
express our appreciation for its beauty.
There is usually no ulterior interest for


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