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Microsoft word - na-3rd ed-index 11_08.doc

INDEX
Abducent neurons
Anatomy 135
Clinical signs 137
Diseases 139
Function 135
Abiotrophic sensorineural deafness 438
Abiotrophy 100, 363
Auditory 438
Cerebellar cortical 363
Motor neuron 100
Nucleus ambiguus 159
Peripheral vestibular 336
Abscess-Brainstem 330
Caudal cranial fossa 343
Cerebellar 344
Cerebral 416, 418
Pituitary 162
Streptococcus equi 418
Abyssian cat-Glucocerebrosidosis 427
Myastheina gravis 93
Accessory neurons
Anatomy 152
Clinical signs 153
Diseases 153
Acetozolamide 212
Acetylcholine 78, 169, 354, 468, 469
Receptor 78
Acetylcholinesterase 79
Achiasmatic Belgian sheepdog 345
Acoustic stria 434
Acral mutilation 237
Adenohypophysis 483
Releasing factors 483
Adenosylmethionine 262
Adhesion-Interthalamic 33, 476
Adiposogenital syndrome 484
Adipsia 458, 484
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone 485
Adversive syndrome 72, 205, 460
Afghan hound-Inherited myelinolytic encephalomyelopathy 264
Agenized flour 452
Aino virus 44
Akabane virus 43
Akita-Congenital peripiheral vestibular disease 336
Alaskan husky encephalopathy 522
Albinism, ocular 345 Albinotic sensorineural deafness 438 Alexander disease 335 Allodynia 190 Alpha fucosidosis 427 Alpha glucosidosis 427 Alpha iduronidase 427 Alpha mannosidase 427 Alpha melanotropism 484 Alsatian-idiopathic epilepsy 458 Alternative anticonvulsant drugs 466 American Bulldog-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 385, 428 American Miniature Horse-Narcolepsy 470 American StaffordshireTerrier-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 367 Amikacin 329 Aminocaproic acid 262 Aminoglycoside antibiotics 329, 439 Amprolium toxicity 421 Ampulla 320 Amygdala 195, 448, 484 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 102 Analgesia 234, 236 Anatomic diagnosis 487 Anencephaly 39 Angus-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 375 Mannosidosis 427 Anhydrosis 175 Anisocoria 169, 360 Anorexia 484 Anosmia 445 Anticonvulsant drugs 466 Antidiuretic hormone 483 Aortic thromboembolism 155 Aperture-lateral 24, 30, 56 Aplasia-Cerebral (telencephalon) 39 Spinal cord-Segmental 50 Apoptosis 27 Appetite control 484 Aqueduct-Mesencephalic 23, 32 Stenosis 71 Arabian horse-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 370 Idiopathic epilepsy 459 Inherited tetany 212 Occipito-atlanto-axial malformation 389 Arachnoid 55 Arachnoid fibrosis 70 Arachnoid granulations 55 Arachnoid villi 59 Archipallium 56, 444, 448 Area centralis 169, 395 cribrosa 395 postrema 441 Area- Cutaneous 231 Periaqueductal grey 234 Septal 445, 448, 449 Subcallosal 449 Arecoline 469 Arnold Chiari malformation 46, 47 Arrhinencephaly 42 Arteritis-Canine meningeal polyarteritis 281 Artery-Common carotid 425 Hyaloid 392 Internal carotid 155, 173, 425 Maxillary 155 Middle cerebral 413 Radicularis magna (Adamkiewicz) 119 Rostral cerebellar 379 Thoracolumbar spinal branches 119 Arthritis- stifle 316 Arthrogryposis 44, 101, 114 Arylsulfatase 427 Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) 199, 234, 402, 479 Aspartate 354 Aspergillus spp 154 Astrocyte 25 Alzheimer 312, 425 Bergman 363 Radial 37, 349, 395 Astrocytoma 333, 409 Ataxia-228 Cerebellar 359 General proprioceptive 228 Vestibular-special proprioception 324 Athetosis 217 Atlantoaxial subluxation 268 Atrophy-Denervation (neurogenic) 88 Disuse 88 Atropine 94, 469, 471 Audiometry 437 Auditory system 433 Anatomy 433 Development 319 Aura 455 Australian Cattle Dog-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Hereditary polioencephalomyelopathy 209, 517 Australian shepherd-ivermectin toxicity 60 Autonomous zone 231, 132, 233 Autoregulation 58 Avulsion –Roots brachial plexus 104 Axon-Association 36 Commissural 36 Projection 36 Axonopathy 237, 294, 310, 312 Ayshire poliomyelomalcia 269 Azathioprine 94 Balanese cat-Sphingomyelinosis 427 Ballism 217 Barrier-Blood brain 60 Basal nuclei 195 Basenji-Persistent pupillary membrane 391 Basset Hound-Cervical vertebral stenosis 269 Globoid cell leukodystrophy 427 Glycoproteinosis 427 Beagle-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 369 Congenital peripheral vestibular disease 336 Globoid cell leukodystrophy 427 Glycoproteinosis 427 GM1 gangliosidosis Type 1 427 Idiopathic elpilepsy 458 Beagle pain syndrome 281 Behavior Control 451 Abnormalities 72, 451, 452 Belgian Shepherd-Congenital achiasmatic nystagmus 345 Belgian Turvuren-Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Bernese Mountain Dog-Degenerative myelopathy 261 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Meningeal fibrosis 271 Meningeal polyarteritis 281 Beta cell pancreatic carcinoma 457 Beta endorphin 485 Beta galactosidase 385, 427 Beta glucosidase 427 Beta mannosidase 427 Bethanechol 187 Betz cells 193 Bichon Frise-Movement disorder 218 Bladder-Lower motor neuron 187 Upper motor neuron 187 Blood-brain barrier 60 Blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier 60 Blue Heeler-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Blue tail lizard 329 Blue Tick Coonhound-Globoid cell leukodystropy 427 Bluetongue virus 43 Border cells 249 Border Collie-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Border disease 214 Border terrier-movement disorder 218 Botulism 91, 161 Bouvier des Flanders-Laryngeal paralysis 159 Bovine cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 375 Bovine congenital functional cerebellar disorder 373 Bovine virus diarrhea virus-Cerebellar hypoplasia-atrophy 371 Optic nerve hypoplsia-atrophy 407 Boxer-Degenerative myelopathy 261 Encephalomyelopathy-polyneuropathy 274 Meningeal polyarteritis 281 Movement disorder 218 Postural repetitive myoclonus-head bobber 216 Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis 218 Brachial plexus-Root avulsion 104 Neuritis 104 Brachium-Rostral colliculus 399 Caudal colliculus 436 Bradycardia 485 Bradykinin 233 Brahman-Glycogenosis 427 Myasthenia gravis 93 Brain derived neurotrophic factor 46, 349 Brain stem auditory evoked response (BAER) 438 Brazilian Murrrha buffalo-Inherited myotonia 208 British Saddle Back swine-Inherited hypomyelination 214 Brittaney Spaniel-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 367 Motor neuron disease 101 Brown-Sequard syndrome 234 Brown Swiss cattle-Axonopathy 312 Degenerative myeloencephalopathy (Weaver) 312 Motor neuron disease 101 Bull Mastiff-Oligodendroglial dysplasia 215 Bundle-Medial Forebrain 449, 483 Bungner’s bands 88 Bunny hopping 49, 50, 51, 86 Burmese cat-Congenital peripheral vestibular disease 336 Hypokalemia 98 Meningoencephalocele 40 Cache Valley virus 44 Cairn Terrier-Globoid cell leukodystrophy 280, 427 Calvaria-Ossification 48 Campylobacter jejuni 91 Camelidae-Parelaphostrongylus tenuis 307 Canine-Meningeal polyarteritis 281 Multiple system degeneration 363, 367 Sensory neuropathy 237 Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus 161, 309 Capsule-Internal 36, 193, 196 External 196 Extreme 196 Carbohydrate regulation 484 Cardiac regulation 485 Case descriptions-Chapter21 1. Nerve sheath neoplasm-vagosympathetic trunk. 502 2. Nerve sheath neoplasm- thoracic sympathetic trunk. 504 , 3. Osteogenic sarcoma-tentorium cerebelli. 505 4. Pelvic injury 507 5. Focal granulomatous meningoencephalitis 509 6. Degenerative myeloencephalopathy 509 7. Cuterebra spp. myiasis. 511 8. Portocaval shunt-hepatic encephalopathy. 513 9. T8-T9 meningioma. 514 10. C1-C2 meningioma. 515 11. Pituitary macroadenoma. 516 12. Hereditary polioencephalomyelopathy of Australian Cattle dogs 517 13. Alaskan husky encephalopathy . 522 Cataplexy 468 Cataract-Congenital 391, 392 Catecholamines 468 Cauda equina 80, 112 Cauda equina syndrome 112 Caudal myopathy 113 Caudal neuropore 24 Caudate nucleus 195 Cavalier King Charles Spanie-Abiotrophic deafness 438 Inherited tetany 212, 217 Movement disorder 217 Occipital bone dysplasia 48 Occipital bone malformation 47 Syringohydromyelia 47 Cell-Amacrine 395 Betz 193 Border 249 Brush 445 Cone 394 Hair 320, 321, 433, 444 Horizontal 395 Neuroepithelial 24 Purkinje 353 Pyramidal 193 Rod 394 Renshaw 208 Schwann 30 Supporting 320, 321, 433, 444 Cell differentiation 24 Centaurea repens 206 Centaurea solstitialis 206 Center-Brainstem micturition 186 Neurogenic hyperventilation 482 Central pattern generators 202 Central visual pathway 396 Centrum semiovale 37, 193 Cerebellar Abiotrophy Dog 360, 363 Cat 370 Horse 370 Calf 375 Lamb 395 Pig 376 Cortex 352 Degenerations 377 Folia 348 Inflammations 339, 376, 377 Injury 377, Ischemia-infarction 377, 379, 381 Lobules 352 Malformations Dog 360, 361 Cat 369 Calf 371, 373 Medulla 352 Neoplasms 332, 337, 377, 382 Neosporosis 377 Parasite-Hypoderma bovis 376 Peduncles 352 Cerebellar hypoplasia-atrophy-Bovine virus diarrhea virus 68, 371 Canine parvo virus 361 Feline panleukopenia virus 369 Cerebellomedullary cistern 61 Cerebellum-Afferents 354 Anatomy 349 Archicerebellum 349, 357 Clinical signs 359 Development 32, 348 Diseases 360 Efferents 356 External germinal layer 348 Flocculonodular lobe 324, 349, 357 Flocculus 324, 328 Function 357 Functional disorders 373 Granular layer 348 Herniation 59 Medulla 352 Molecular layer 348 Neocerebellum 357 Nodulus 324, 328, 349 Paleocerebellum 357 Purkinje cell layer 348 Cerebral abscess 416, 418 Cerebral arterial circle 173 Cerebral cortex 37, 192 Archicortex 448 Histology 194 Motor 192 Neocortex 195 Paleocortex 448 Somesthetic 193 Cerebral edema-Congenital 214 Cerebral herniation 418 Cerebral perfusion 58 Cerebrocortical dysplasia 457 Cerebrocortical necrosis 419 Cerebrospinal fluid 54 Absorption 59 Circulation 56 Collection-Cerebellomedullary cistern 61 Lumbosacral 63 Function 60 Production 54 Cerebrospinal nematodiasis 423 Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) 377, 379, 457 Ceroid lipofuscinosis 385, 428 Charolais leukodystrophy-oligodendroglial dysplasia 312 Chediak-Higashi syndrome 346 Cheetah leukodystrophy 426 Cheyn Stokes respiration 482 Chihuahua-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Frontoparietal suture 48, 72 Chinese Crested- Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 364 Extrapyramidal neuronal abiotrophy 364 Multiple system degeneration. 364 Chinook-Movement disorder 218 Chlorpyrofos 96 Cholesterinic granuloma 37, 418, 423 Cholinergic crisis 94 Cholinergic mechanisms in narcolepsy 468 Chondrodystrophic breeds 257 Chorea 217 Choriocapillaris layer 393 Choroid plexus 30, 33, 36, 37, 54 Chow Chow-Myotonia 207 Chromatolysis 89 Chuzan virus 44 Cingulate gyrus 448 Cingulum 448 Circling 324 Circumventricular organs 442 Cistern-Cerebellomedullary 61 Claustrum 195 Clinical sign summary-regional 499, 500 Clomiprazine 465 Clonazepam 212, 473 Clonus 83, 204 Clostridium botulinum 92 Clostridium tetani 209 Cluster seizures 455, 467 Cochlea 433 Cochlear-Canaliculus 433 Duct 433 Nerve 433 Window 433 Cocker Spaniel-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Cognitive disorders 452 Colliculus-Caudal 33, 420, 434 Rostral 33, 399 Coloboma 406 Column-Dorsal grey 27 Fornix 483 Functional 27 Intermediate grey 27 Ventral grey 27 Coma 481 Commissure 36, 399 Caudal 170 Caudal colliculus 435 Habenular 450 Hippocampal 37, 448 Rostral 37, 445 Rostral colliculus 399 Complex malformation of calves 46 Complex regional pain syndrome 190 Complex repetitive discharges 209 Congenital nystagmus 345, 397 Conjugate eye movement 136 Conscious state 479 Continence and storage of urine 186 Continuous muscle fiber activity (CMFA) 216 Contracture-Infraspinatus 108 Masticatory muscles 144 Control of pupils 169 Coonhound paralysis 90 Copper deficiency 310, 420 Corona radiata 37, 193 Corpora quadrigemina 33 Corpus-Amygdaloid 448 Callosum 37, 468 Trapezoid 435 Corpus callosum sectioning 468 Corriedale Sheep-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 375 Glycogenosis 427 Cortex-Motor 193 Somesthetic 225 Corticosteroids 215, 411, 463 Cranial nerves-LMN-GSE 134 III, IV, VI 135 V 139 VII 144, 188 IX, X, XI 152, 188 XII 160 Cranioschisis 39, 40 Crest-Neural 23 Cribriform plate 413 Crista ampullaris 320 Crotolaria spp. 425 Crus cerebri 33, 193 Cryptococcus neoformans 112 Cupula 320 Cushing disease 485 Cutaneous area 231 Cuterebra spp. 413, 511 Cuterebriasis 68, 337, 377, 413, 511 Cyclopamine 42, 389 Cyclopic malformation 42, 389 Cyclosporine 95, 215, 333, 411 Cyst-Dermoid 333, 363 Epidermoid 363 Quadrigeminal cistern 377 Synovial 293 Cytarabine 411 Cytoarchitectonics 194 Czechoslavakian Short-hair Pointers-sensory neuropathy 237 Dachshund-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 385, 428 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Intervertebral disc extrusion/protrusion 257 Narcolepsy 469 Sensory neuropathy 237 Daft lambs 375 Dalmatian-Inherited albinotic deafness 438 Inherited hypomyelination 214 Inherited laryngeal paralysis 159 Inherited polyneuropathy 159 Dancing Doberman disease 125 Dandy Walker syndrome 362 Dantrolene 187 Deafness 336, 437 Abiotrophic sensorineual 438 Acquired sensorineural 439 Albinotic sensorineural 438 Cochleosaccular 438 Conduction 438 Neuroepithelial 438 Otitis interna 336 Ototoxic 439 Decerebellate rigidity 204, 339 Decerebrate rigidity 204 Decussation-Pyramidal 193 Rostral cerebellar peduncle 356 Ventral tegmental 356 Deer stalking 212 Defecation-Control 187 Degeneration-wallerian 88 Degenerative joint disease-Cervical vertebra 270, 274, 275 Thoracolumbar-Shiloh Shepherd 263 Degenerative myelopathy Canine 261 Equine 294, 509 Feline 262 Denervation hypersensitivity 172, 176 Dermacentor andersoni 95 Dermacentor variabilis 95 Dermatomes 231 Dermatomyositis 96 Desipramine 471 Devon-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Diabetes insipidus 484, 485 Diagonal band 448 Diastematomyelia 48 Diazepam 187, 328, 467 Diazoxide 463 Dicephalus 41 Diclazuril 301 Diencephalon-Anatomy 449, 476 Development 33 Epithalamus 449 Hypothalamus 482 Thalamus 196, 476 Metathalamus 476 Subthalamus 196 Differential diagnosis 487 Digestion chamber 88 Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 301 Diphenhydramine 96, 414 Diplomyelia 48 Diprosopus 41 Discospondylitis Dog 113, 256 Cow 123, 312 Horse 296 Sheep 314 Disease-Lou Gehrig 102 Von Gierki 457 Disinhibition 204 Disseminated idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) 265 Doberman Pinscher-Cervical vertebral stenosis 269 Cervical vertebral degenerative joint disease 270 Congenital peripheral vestibular disease 336 Inherited neuromyopathy (dancing) 125 Multisystem abiotrophy 101 Narcolepsy 469 Persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis 392 Postural repetitive myoclonus-head bobber 216 Doll’s eye 325 Domestic cat- Albinotic deafness 438 Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 370 Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Globoid cell leukodystrophy 427 Glycogenosis 427 GM1 gangliosidosis Type 1 427 Laryngeal paralysis 160 Inherited myotonia 208 Mannosidosis 427 Mucopolysaccharidosis 427 Sphingomyelinosis 427 Dopamine 470, 485 Dopaminergic neurotoxin 206 Dropped jaw 142 Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy 99 Duct-Cochlear 320 Endolymphatic 320 Semicircular 320 Ductus reuniens 320, 433 Dura mater 55 Dural fibrosis 70 Dural ossification 265 Dysautonomia 189 Dysmetria 359 Dysphagia 92, 93, 153, 154, 161 Dyspnea 93 Dystocia-injury 126 Dystonia 217 Dystonic choreoathetosis 218 Dystrophinopathy 99 Domestic shorthair 99, 208 Golden Retriever 99 Irish Terrier 99 Labrador Retriever 99 Rottweiler 274 Rat Terrier 99 Ear-External 321 Internal 321 Middle 321 Ossicles 320 Edrophonium chloride 93 Electrodiagnostic testing 89 Conduction rate 89 Electromyography 89 Electoencephalography- Hydrocephalus 75 Sleep patterns 468 Electroretinography 405 Elso heel 212 Embolism-Parasitic 424 Encephalitis/encephalomyelitis/meningitis Canine distemper viral 213 Caprine arthritis encephalitis viral 309 Eastern equine viral 425 Feline infectious peritonitis viral 339 Granulomatous meningoencephalitis 333 Necrotizing leukoencephalitis 411 Necrotizing meningoencephalitis 411 Rabies viral 313, 425 West Nile viral 425 Encephalomalacia-Nigropallidal 205 Encephalomyelopathy-Axonopathy (hereditary ataxia) 384 Fibrinoid 335 Myelinolytic 264 Encephalopathy-Amprolium toxicity 421 Anoxia 421 Equine neonatal 421 Hepatic 423 Hypoxic 421 Ischemic 334 Lead toxicity 420 Mercury toxicity 421 Metabolic 422 Osmolar imbalance 422 Ovine copper deficiency 420 Salt toxicity 422 Sulfur toxicity 419 Thiamin deficiency 339, 419 Water intoxication 420 Endocochlear potential 438 Endolymph 320, 328, 433 Endolymphatic sac 320 Endoscopy-Guttural pouch 149 English Bulldog-Meningomyelocele 50 Postural repetitive myoclonus-head bobber 216 Spina bifida 50 English Cocker Spaniel-Congenital peripheral vestibular disease 336 English Pointer-sensory neuropathy 237 English Springer Spaniel-Glycogenosis 427 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Rage syndrome 452 English Setter-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Enkephalin 234 Enophthalmos 174, 184 Enrofloxacin 414 Enteric nervous system 29, 189, 443 Enzootic ataxia 310 Ependyma 25 Episodic repetitive myoclonus 216 Epistaxis 15 Epithalamus 33, 449, 476 Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy 294, 509 Equine Herpesvirus 1 vasculitis-myelopathy 302 Equine laryngeal hemiparesis-hemiplegia 156 Equine leukoencephalomalacia 423 Equine motor neuron disease 101 Equine myotonia 208 Equine neonatal encephalopathy 421 Equine pars intermedia dysfunction 484 Equine protozoal encephalitis 143, 160, 163, 341, 342 Equine protozoal myelitis 107, 126, 163, 297 Excitotoxicity 459, 465 Exencephaly 40 Exercise induced collapse-Labrador retriever 100 Exercise induced fatique 100 Extensor rigidity 205, 209 External germinal layer-cerebellum 348 Extrapyramidal nuclear lesions 205 Extrapyramidal system 195 Eye-Sequence of development 393 Eyeball-Embryology 389 Compression 467 Facial Analgesia 141, 238 Canal 147 Hypalgesia 238 Neuropathy- Neuritis 111, 151 Paresis/paralysis 91, 92, 93, 145, 147, 155, 329, 337, 340, 341, 342 Facial neurons Anatomy 144 Clinical signs 145 Diseases 147, 329 Facial nerve tetanus (hemifacial spasm) 150, 331 Farm animal spinal cord disease 306 Fasciculus-Cuneatus 222, 225, 234 Dorsal longitudinal 483 Dorsolateral 230 Gracilis 225, 234 Medial longitudinal 134, 323, 482 Proprius 86, 222, 230 Feeding center 484 Felbamate 467 Feline Cerebral infarction 413 Hyperesthesia syndrome 464 Infectious peritonitis virus 69, 339 Ischemic encephalopathy 68, 413 Panleukopenia virus-Cerebellar hypoplasia-atrophy 369 Hydranencephaly 44 Fenbendazole 307 Fenthion 96 Fetlock-dorsal buckling 123 Fibers-Cerebellar climbing 353 Cerebellar mossy 353 Deep Arcuate 225 Longitudinal of pons 355 Periventricular 483 Superficial arcuate 222 Transverse of pons 355 Fibrillations 89 Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy 110, 250, 252, 266, 274, 277, 301, 315 Fibrotic myopathy caudomedial thigh muscles 128 Finnish Spitz-Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Fissure-Choroidal 34, 35, 389 Orbital 135, 169 Palpebral 174 Tympano-occipital 153, 189 Ventral median 27 Flexor reflex 231 Fluid-Cerebrospinal 54 Compartments 60 Fontanelle 48 Fornix-Body 449 Column 449 -Crus 36, 449 Fossa- Caudal cranial 339 Middle cranial 134 Fovea 395 Fracture-Pelvic 120, 507 Sacrocaudal 122, 123 Vertebral 113, 305, 313, 314 French bulldog-Postural repetitive myoclonus-head bobber 216 Fresian cattle-GM1 gangliosidosis 427 Froelich syndrome 484 Frontal lobotomy 452 Fucosidosis 427 Fumonisin 423 Funiculus 29 Fusarium moniliformis 161, 423 Gabapentin 216, 467 Gait-Evaluation 243, 285, 491 Generation 202 Galactocerebrosidase 427 Galactosylceramidase 280 Galloway-Mannosidosis 427 Gamma aminobutyric acid 209, 215, 327, 355 Gamma loop 202 Gammel Dansk Honsehond-Myasthenia gravis 93 Ganglion-Abdominal sympathetic plexus 29 Caudal mesenteric 185, 188 Cervicothoracic 173 Ciliary 169 Cranial cervical 173 Distal glossopharyngeal nerve 441, 444 Distal-vagus nerve 228, 441, 444 Geniculate 441, 444 Mandibular 189 Myenteric 188 Otic 189 Pelvic 184 Pterygopalatine 189 Spinal 28, 222, 230, 441 Spiral 434 Sublingual 189 Submucosal 188 Sympathetic trunk 29, 173 Trigeminal 139, 227, 228, 234 Vestibular 321 Ganglioradiculitis 237 Gangliosidosis-GM-1, Portuguese water dog 385, 427 GM-2 427 Gene-Canarc 469 Pax-6 389 RELN 46, 362 General proprioception (GP)-Anatomy 222 Clinical signs 228 Cranial nerve 227 Development 27 Diseases 229 Reflex and cerebellar transmission 222 Somesthetic pathway for conscious perception 225 Spinal nerve 222, 225 General somatic afferent (GSA)-Clinical signs 234. 236 Cranial nerve 30, 234 Reflex pathway 235 Conscious perception pathway 236 Development 27 Diseases 237 Spinal nerve 229 Reflex pathway 230 Conscious perception pathway 233 General somatic efferent (GSE) Cranial nerve 30, 134 Development 27 Spinal nerve 77 General visceral afferent (GVA)-Anatomy 30, 186, 441 Development 27 Function 168 General visceral efferent (GVE)-Anatomy 168 Cranial nerve 30, 168 Development 27 Parasympathetic 168 Spinal nerve 168 Sympathetic 168 UMN system 449 Gentamycin 329 Geriatric canine peripheral vestibular disease 328 Germ cell neoplasm 139, 402 German Shepherd-Congenital peripheral vestibular disease 336 Connective tissue disorder 129 Caudal thigh fibrotic myopathy 128 Degenerative myelopathy 261 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Inherited giant axonopathy 125 Motor neuron disease 101 German Shorthair Pointer-GM2 gangliosidosis Type 1 427 Gland-Lacrimal 189 Nasal 189 Palatine 189 Salivary 189 Sweat 174 Third eyelid 189 Gliomatosis cerebri 279 Globoid cell leukodystrophy 215, 280, 427 Globus pallidus 195, 206 Glossopharyngeal neurons Anatomy 152 Clinical signs 153 Diseases 153 Glucocerebrosidosis 427 Glucosuria 485 Glutamic acid 252, 355, 364, 459, 465 Glutamic acid decarboxylase 215 Glycine 209, 211, 249 Glycogenosis 427 Glycoproteinosis 427 Goat-Inherited myotonia 207 Golden Retriever-Hypomyelination 214 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Muscular dystrophy 99 Golgi neurons-cerebellum 355 Golgi tendon organ 202 Gordon Setter-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 367 Gotland pony-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 371 Grading system for degrees of paresis Dog 244 Horse 289 Granular layer-cerebellum 352 Granuloma-Cholesterinic 37 Cryptococcal 516 Granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) 333, 404, 509 Granuloprival hypoplasia 369 Grass sickness 176, 189 Great Dane-Cervical vertebral stenosis 269 Myasthenia gravis 93 Orthostatic postural myoclonus 216 Griseofulvin 40, 42. 406 Guernsey-Spastic syndrome 213 Gustatory sense 444 Guttural pouch-Anatomy 154 Endoscopy 149 Mycosis 154 Hairy shaker lambs 214 Halicephalobus gingivalis 423 Haloxon toxicity 159 Hallucination 468 Havana Brown cat-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 370 Head bobbers 216 Head tilt 324 Head torsion 399 Head wide excursions 327, 336 Heat conservation and loss centers 484 Helicotrema 433 Hemianopsia 401 Hemifacial spasm 150 Hemi-inattention 485 Hemineglect 485 Hemiparesis 203, 204, 271, 274, 278 Hemiplegia 203, 277 Hemorrhage-Brainstem 183 Hepatic encephalomyelopathy 74, 311, 421, 425, 457, 458 Hereford calves-Inherited brain malformation 52 Inherited cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 375 Inherited congenital cerebral edema 214 Inherited tetany 211 Herniation-Cerebellum 59 Subfalcine 58 Transtentorial 59, 418 Hexosaminodase 427 Hippocampus 36, 445, 448 Fimbria 449 Fornix 448 Hirsutism 485 Histophilus somnus 161, 162 Holoprosencephaly 42 Holstein Fresian cattle-GM1 gangliosidosis Type 1 427 Inherited axonopathy 215 Inherited cerebellar abiotrophy 373 Mannosidosis 427 Spastic syndrome 213 Homeostasis 168 Homunculus 193 Horner syndrome 74, 105, 143, 147, 155, 160, 172, 173, 177, 182, 277, 336 Huntington chorea 217 Hyaloid blood vessels 392 Hydranencephaly 43, 68, 457 Hydrocephalus 67 Compensatory 67 Obstructive 69 Acquired 69 Developmental 70, 457 Case studies 7 Clinical signs 72 Diagnosis 74 Treatment 75 Hydromyelia 47, 48 Hypalgesia 234, 236, 344 Hyperadrenocorticoidism 460, 484 Acquired myotonia 209 Hyperalgesia 190, 238 Hyperammonemia 425 Hypercapnia 58 Hyperesthesia 238 Hyperexplexia 212 Hyperglycemia 484 Hyperhydrosis 190, 484, 485 Hyperkalemia 458 Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis 208 Hypermetria 228, 359 Hypernatremia 458, 484 Hyperphagia 451, 484, 485 Hyperreflexia 204 Hypersexuality 451 Hypersomnia 470 Hypertensive vasculopathy 267, 379 Hyperthermia 39, 175, 190, 217, 484, 485 Hypertonia 204 Hyperventilation 482 Hypervitaminosis A 267 Hypocalcemia 458 Hypochondroplasia 257 Hypocretin 468, 469, 484 Hypoglossal neurons Anatomy 160 Clinical signs 160 Diseases 160 Hypoglycemia 457 Hypohydrosis 190 Hypokalemia 97, 458 Burmese cat 98 Hypomagnesemia 458 Hypomyelination-dysmyelination Inherited 214 Viral Bovine viral diarrhea 215 Circa 214 Hog cholera 214 Swine fever 214 Toxic Trochlorfon 214 Hypophyseal portal system 483 Hypophysis 483 Hypoplasia-Cerebellar 360 Prosencephalon 39 Spinal cord –segmental 49 Hypothalamus-Afferent tracts 483 Anatomy 476, 482 Clinical syndromes 483 Development 33 Efferent tracts 483 Function 168, 174, 483 Nuclei 468, 483 Releasing factors 483 Vascular organ 442 Hypothermia 190, 484 Hypothyroidism 94, 151, 159, 329, 333, 381 Hypoxia-Postanesthetic 117, 421 Ibizan Hound-Inherited axonopathy- encephalomyelopathy 384 Ictus 454 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 MR imaging 459 Idiopathic facial neuropathy 151 Imipramine 471 Impetance audiometry 438 Incontinence-Fecal 188 Urinary 187 Incus 320 Infraspinatus contracture 108 Injury-Acute caudal muscle 113 Brachial plexus roots 104 Common calcanean tendon 128 Femoral nerve 120, 126 Intramuscular injections 123 Obturator nerve 121 Radial nerve 104, 107, 108 Sciatic nerve 120, 121, 123, 507 Spinal cord 252 Inspiratory dyspnea 153, 155 156 Internal capsule 193 Interneuron 209 Intervertebral disc extrusion/protrusion Cervical 267 Hansen types 1 and 2- 257 Lumbosacral 113, 127 Thoracolumbar 253, 254, 257 Type 3-“High velocity 259” Intracarotid drug injection 425 Intumescence-Cervical 27 Lumbosacral 27 Involuntary muscle contractions Muscle 206 Nervous system 209 Iodopsin 394 Ion channelopathy 217 Irish Setter-Cerebellar hypoplasia 362 Lissencephaly 46, 362 Irish terrier dystrophinopathy 99 Irish Wolf Hound-Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Ischemic encephalopathy- Cerebellum 334 Cerebral 413 Ischemic neuromyopathy 115 Ischemic poliomyelomalacia 116 Isoflupredone 98 Ivermectin 307, 414 Ixodes holocyclus 95 Jack (Parson) Russell Terrier- Axonopathy-Encephalomyelopathy (Hereditary ataxia) 384 Myasthenia gravis 93 Japanese Spaniel-GM2 gangliosidosis Type 1 427 Jugular compression maneuver 58 Kanamycin 329 Keeshond-Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Keratitis-Neurotrophic 139, 237, 238 sicca 189 Kerry Blue Terrier-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 363 Extrapyramidal neuronal abiotrophy 363 Multiple system degeneration 363 Ketosis 422 Kindling 465 Kinesthesia 238 Koilosternia 51 Korat cat-GM1 gangliosidosis Type 2-427 Lissencephaly 45 Kuvasz degenerative myelopathy 261 Kyphosis 259 Labrador Retreiver-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 367 Exercise induced collapse 100 Fibrinoid encephalopathy 335 Hydranencephaly 44 Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Inherited tetany 212 Leukodystrophy (spongy degeneration) 335 Meningeal fibrosis 271 Motor neuron disease 101 Muscular dystrophy 99 Polymyopathy-Type II deficiency 98 Narcolepsy 469 Labyrinth-Bony 319, 320 Membranous 319, 320 Lamina terminalis 35, 37, 477 Lamina- External medullary of thalamus 477 Internal medullary of thalamus 476 Laminitis 485 Landrace swine-Inherited hypomyelination 214 Landry-Guillain-Barre disease 91 Lapland dog-Glycogenosis 427 Laryngeal hemiparesis -hemiplegia-equine: Inherited 155, 156 Toxic 159 Laryngeal paresis-paralysis: Canine Acquired : idiopathic, injury 159 Inherited 124, 159 Lavendar foal syndrome 212 Layer-Germinal 24, 25, 348 Mantle 25 Marginal 25 Subependymal 37 Lead toxicity 420 Lemniscus- Lateral 435 Medial 225, 226 Trigeminal 227, 236 Lens 390 Lens: Ectopic 390 Lens placode 389 vesicle 390 Leonberger-Inherited distal neuropathy 124 Laryngeal paralysis 124, 159 Polyneuropathy 159 Leptomeninges 30, 55 Leptomeningitis-suppurative 343 Leptospira icterohemorrhagica 95 Leukodystrophy-Globoid cell 215, 280, 427 Labrador retrievers 335 Leucoencephalomalacia-Moldy corn toxicity 161 Leukoencephalomyelitis, demyelinating -CAE virus 309 Leukoencephalopathy-Adult Cheetahs 426 Levetiracetam 467 Lhasa apso- Lissencephaly 45 Lidocaine 213 Limbic system 444, 448 Anatomy 448 Direct stimulation studies 451 Diseases 451 Experimental destruction 451 Experimental studies 451 Function 450 Self-stimulation studies 451 Lipomeningocele 41 Lipopigment 102, 295 Lissencephaly 45, 362, 457 Listeria monocytogenes 143, 146, 160, 161, 313, 343, 344 Listeriosis 143, 146, 160, 161, 313, 343, 344 Lobe-Flocculonodular 324 Frontal 356, 449 Occipital 399 Parietal 356 Piriform 445, 448 Temporal 437 Lobotomy-Frontal 452 Locus ceruleus 234, 468 Lomustine 333 Longhaired Dachshund-sensory neuropathy 237 Lower motor neuron (LMN)-Anatomy 77 Clinical signs 86 Diseases 90 Lumbosacral –Articulation 112 CSF collection 63 Poliomyelomalacia 116, 117, 118 Stenosis 112 Syndrome 112 Lymphoma 106, 123, 141, 260, 312, 475 Macadamia nuts 215 Macula 321, 395 Malformation-Arnold Chiari 46 Atlanto-axial 268 Brain 37 Caudal vertebral 50 Cerebellar 360, 361 Complex of calves 46 Cyclops 42 Occipital bone 47 Occiptio-atlanto-axial 289 Optic chiasm 345 Pathogenesis 52 Spinal cord 48 Thoracic vertebral 256, 259, 308, 315, 316 Malformation-malarticulation-Cervical: Large animals 289 Acquired: 290 Degenerative joint disease 293 Static and Dynamic stenosis 291 Congenital: Occipito-atlanto-axial malformation 289 Small Animal 268 Acquired- Degenerative joint disease 270, 274, 275 Stenosis 269 Congenital-Atlanto-axial subluxation 268 Atlanto-occipital 268 Malignant catarrhal fever 162 Malignant nerve sheath neoplasm Spinal nerve 103, 274 Trigeminal nerve 139 Malleus 320 Maltese: Acquired action related repetitive myoclonus 215 Mamillary body 449, 450 Mannitol 54, 420 Mannosidosis 377, 427 Manx cat-Meningomyelocele 51 Spina bifida 51 Meclizine 328 Medulla oblongata-Anatomy 30 Clinical signs 229 Development 30 Medulla spinalis-Anatomy 27 Development 27 Medulloblastoma 344, 363, 377 Megacolon 188 Megaesophagus 93, 96, 153, 273 Melanoblast 29 Melanoma 304 Membrana nictitans 174, 183 Membrane-Basilar 433 Pial-glial 60 Pupillary 391 Statoconiorum (otolithic) 321 Tectorial 434 Tympanic 319, 433 Vestibular 433 Membranous labyrinth 319 Menace test 360, 399, 401 Menier disease 328 Meningeal-Fibrosis-C2-C3 271, 272 Polyarteritis 281 Worm 307 Meninges 30, 55 Meningioma 37, 172 Meningocele 39, 50 Meningoencephalitis: Thrombotic 344 Meningoencephalocele 39 Meningoencephalomyelitis: Feline infectious peritonitis viral 339 Granulomatous 333, 404, 509 Meningomyelocele 46. 50 Mercury toxicity 421 Mesencephalon-Anatomy 134, 169 Aqueductal stenosis 71 Clinical signs 170, 500s Development 32 Periaqueductal grey area 234 Mestinon 94 Metabolic encephalopathy-Hepatic 421, 425 Hypoglycemic 457, 463 Renal 458 Metaplasia-Chondroid 257 Dural 264 Fibrous 257 Metathalamus 476 Metencephalon-Anatomy 349 Clinical signs 359, 500 Developmen t 31, 348 Methylphenidate 471 Methylprednisolone 414 Metronidazole toxicity 333, 334 Mexilitine 207, 217 Microglia 25 Micronema deletrix 423 Microphthalmia 273, 406 Micturition: Anatomy 184 Control 184, 186 Parasympathetic 184 Pontine center 186 Sympathetic 185 Miniature Horse-Narcolepsy 469 Miniature Pinscher-Mucopolysaccharidosis 427 Miniature Poodle-Globoid cell leukodystrophy 427 Narcolepsy 469 Miniature Schnauzer-Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy 250 Hyperlipidemia 458 Megaesophagus 154 Myotonia 207 Miniature Smooth Dachshund –Myasthenia gravis 93 Miosis 105, 174, 182 Mixed breed dog-GM2 gangliosidosis Type 3- 427 Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Mucopolysaccharidosis 427 Modafanil 471 Modiolus 433 Moldy corn poisoning 161 Molecular mimicry 91, 411 Molera 48, 72 Chihuahua 48 Monoaminergic mechanisms in narcolepsy 468 Monoparesis 103, 106 Monoplegia 104, 120, 253 Montadale sheep-Myotonia 207 Morgan horse-Hyperammonemia,hyperornithemia, hyperhomocitrulinurea (HHH) 425 Morphine 234 Motor end plate 78 Motor neuron- Alpha 200 Gamma 200, 202 Motor neuron disease-Acquired 101 Congenital 100 Equine 101 Motor unit 78 Movement disorder 205, 217 - Movement disorder-sleep associated 473 Mucopolysaccharidosis 427 Multilobular bone tumor 382, 406, Multiple cartilaginous exostoses 256 Multiple system degeneration 363, 367 Murray Grey-Mannosidosis 427 Muscle-Arrector ciliorum 176 Ciliaris 169 Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis 158 Cricothyroid 158 Cutaneous coli 287 Cutaneous trunci 86, 246, 287 Detrusor 186 Dilator pupillae 173 Gastrocnemius 128, 212 Gracilis 128 Infraspinatus 108 Intrafusal 200 Levator palpebrae superioris 139 Mastication 95, 139, 214 Orbicularis oculi 144 Orbitalis 173 Peroneus tertius 212 Sacrocaudal dorsomedial 102 Semimembranosus 128 Semitendinosus 128 Sphincter of pupil 169 Stapedius 435 Sternocephalicus 102 Superficial digital flexor 128 Tensor tympani 435 Urethralis 186 Muscle-atrophy 88 dimpling 208 hypertrophy 207 Muscle Contractions-Involuntary uncontrolled 206 Muscular dystrophy-Duchenne’s 99 Golden Retriever 99 Myasthenia gravis 93 Acquired 93 Congenital 93 Mycosis-Guttural pouch 154 Mydriasis 170, 182 Myelencephalon-Anatomy 144, 152, 160 Clinical signs 145, 153, 160, 500 Development 30 Myelin edema 335 Myelinolysis, Afghan hounds 264 Myeloarchitectonics 194 Myelodysplasia 46, 48, 51 Myelography 65 Myelomalacia-Diffuse 119 Myelopathy- Compressive, cervical 267 Degenerative 261, 294 Equine Herpesvirus 1- 302 Fibrocartilaginous embolic 110, 250, 252, 266, 274, 277, 301, 313 Nutritional 315 Myeloschisis 50 Myiasis:Cuterebra spp 68, 337, 377, 413, 511 Hypoderma spp 376 Myoclonus 213 Repetitive-Acquired action-related-Autoimmune disorder 215 Toxicity 215 Congenital action related 214 Constant-Myoclonic syndrome 213 Episodic non-postural 216 Postural 215 Age related 216 Head bobbers 2316 Orthostatic 216 Resting 217 Sporadic 213 Myokymia 216 Myopathy-Acute caudal 113 Caudomedial thigh muscles 1`28 Dystrophinopathy 99 Hypokalemic 97 Burmese cat 98 Labrador Retriever 98 Vitamin E deficiency 130 Myositis- Autoimmune 85, 144 Extraocular muscle 95 Masticatory 95, 144 Myotonia 90, 206 Acquired 209 Inherited-Congenital 207 In dystrophinopathy 99, 208 In vitamin E deficiency myopathy 130, 208 Narcolepsy 468, 485 Anatomical components 468 Diagnosis 470 Examples 471 Treatment 471 Nasal hypalgesia 238, 341 Necrotizing leukoencephalitis 411 Necrotizing meningoencephalitis 411 Negri bodies 313 Neocortex 195 Neomycin 329 Neopallium 36, 448 Neoplasm Astrocytoma 409, 461 Beta cell, pancreatic carcinoma 45 Germ cell 139, 172, 402 Gliomatosis cerebri 279 Lymphoma 106, 123, 141, 258, 276 Malignant nerve sheath 103, 139, 274, 502, 504 Medulloblastoma 344, 363, 377 Melanoma 304 Meningioma 172, 406, 463 Multilobular bone tumor 382, 406 Nephroblastoma 254 Osteogenic sarcoma 205, 505 Pituitary chromophobe adenoma 484 Pituitary macroadenoma 139, 404 Pituitary pars intermedia adenoma 484 Primitive neurectodermal tumor 363 Sarcoma 331, 419 Squamous cell carcinoma 337 Wilm tumor 255 Neospora caninum 95, 97, 114, 377 Neospora hughesi 298 Neosporosis 114, 126, 363, 377 Neostigmine 94 Nephroblastoma 254 Nerve-Abducent-Cranial nerve VI 30, 135 Accessory-Cranial nerve XI 30, 102, 153, 189 Auriculopalpebral 147 Axillary 85 Caudal cutaneous femoral 109 Chorda tympani 189 Ciliary 169 Cochlear 433, 434 Cranial laryngeal 153 Cranial lateral cutaneous brachial 105 Facial-Cranial nerve VII 30, 144, 155, 329, 441, 444 Femoral 83, 109, 112, 120, 126, 127, 188 Genitofemoral 109, 120 Glossopharyngeal-Cranial nerve IX 30, 153, 154, 188, 441, 444 Hypogastric 184, 186, 188 Hypoglossal-Cranial nerve XII 30, 155, 160 Internal carotid 173 Lacrimal 189 Lateral cutaneous femoral 109, 120 Lateral thoracic 86, 105, 246, 287 Lumbar spinal 109 Major petrosal 188 Mandibular 139, 227 Maxillary 141, 227 Median 85, 109 Minor petrosal 189 Musculocutaneous 85 Obturator 120, 127 Oculomotor-Cranial nerve III 32, 134, 169, 399, 402 Olfactory-Cranial nerve I- 3, 444 Ophthalmic 227 Optic-Cranial nerve II- 33, 169 Pelvic 184 Peroneal 83, 127, 229 Pudendal 109, 186, 188 Radial 85, 107 Recurrent laryngeal 157 Saphenous 109 Sciatic 83, 109, 120, 121, 123, 507 Spinal 78 Splanchnic, lumbar 185 Suprascapular 109 Tibial 83, 123, 212 Trigeminal-Cranial nerve V 31, 139, 142, 227, 234, 238 Trochlear-Cranial nerve IV- 32, 135 Tympanic 189 Ulnar 85, 109 Vagus-Cranial nerve X-30, 153, 154, 155, 188, 441, 444 Vertebral 177, 179 Vestibular 136, 320, 321 Vestibulocochlear-Cranial nerve VIII-30, 321 Zygomatic 189 Nerve sheath neoplasm 139, 275 Nervous ketosis 422 Neural canal 23 crest 23, 28 fold 23 groove 23 plate 23 tube 23 Neuritis-Brachial plexus 104 Cauda equina 111 Chronic 104 Facial 151 Polyneuritis equi 111 Trigeminal 142 Neurobiotaxis 30 Neuroblast 24 Neuroglia 25 Neurohypophysis 33, 482 Neurologic examination 243, 487 Backing 286 Circling 286 Cranial nerves 495 Evaluation for neck discomfort 288 Form 488 Gait and posture 243, 285, 491 Head elevation 286 History 489 Large animal spinal cord 285 Laryngeal adduction tst 288 Mental status 490 Muscle tone, size and spinal nerve reflexes 245, 285, 286, 494 Physical examination 490 Postural reactions 244, 286, 492 Signalment 487 Small animal spinal cord 243 Swaying 286 Neuroma 88 Neuromuscular –Clinical signs 86 Diseases 90 Junction 78, 93 Spindle 200 Neuromyokymia 217 Neuromyopathy-Doberman Pinscher 125 Ischemic 115 Hypothyroid 151, 159 Neuron-Alpha efferent 200 Association 195 Bipolar 394 Commissural 195 Definition 2 Dendritic zone 2 Gamma efferent 200 Gamma plate 202 Gamma trial 202 Granule 194, 348 Lower motor 77 Photoreceptor 394 Projection 195 Purkinje 327, 348 Pyramidal 194 Sensory Ia 202 Sensory Ib 202 Sensory group II 202 Stellate 194 Telodendron 2 Upper motor 192 Neuronal seizure environment 456 Neuronal storage disease 426 Neuronal vacuolation and spinocerebellar degeneration 159, 273 Neuro-ophthalmologic review of clinical signs 409 Neuropathy Canine sensory 237 Dancing Doberman 125 Diabetic 125 Diffuse polyneuropathy-rottweiler 159 Hypothyroid 125,151 Idiopathic facial 151 Inherited distal-Leonbergers 124 Inherited giant axonal 125 Inherited hypertrophic in Tibetan mastiffs 125 Metabolic 124 Recurrent laryngeal 158 Trige,mnial 142, 238 Neuropore, rostral 23 Neurotoxin-Botulinum 92 Tetanus 209 Neurotrophic keratitis 139, 237, 238 Nigropallidal encephalomalacia 205 Nigrostriatal system 195, 199 Nitazoxanide 301 Nociception 221, 229, 233, 236 Non-olfactory rhinencephalon 448 Norepinephrine 168, 177, 468, 469 Norwegian Forest cat-Glycogenosis 427 Norwich Terrier-Movement disorder 218 Nubian-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Mannosidosis 427 Nuclear bag-chain fibers 201 Nucleus-Abducent 30, 135 Accumbens 195 Ambiguus 30, 152, 158, 159 Amygdala 195, 445 Basal 36, 37, 195 Caudate 195, 217, 364 Caudolateral thalamus 477 Central cervical 224 Central medial thalamus 477 Centrobasilar 224 Cerebellar 356 Ceruleus 234, 468 Clark 222 Claustrum 195 Cochlear 434 Cuneate-Medial 225, 234 Lateral 222 Dorsal raphe 468 Dorsalis 222 Dorsolateral thalamus 477 Dorsomedial thalamus 477 Edinger-Westphal 169 Endopeduncular 196 Facial 30, 144 Fastigial-cerebellar 324, 356 Geniculate-Lateral 398, 477 Medial 324, 437, 477 Globus pallidus 195 Gracilis 225, 234 Habenula 449 Hypoglossal 30, 160, 163 Hypothalamic 468 Interpeduncular 450 Interposital-cerebellar 356 Lateral cerebellar 356 Lateral cervical 226, 234 Lateral cuneate 222 Lateral lemniscus 436 Lentiform 195 Locus ceruleus 234, 468 Mamillary 483 Medullary motor reticular formation 199, 468 Mesencephalic of trigeminal nerve 227 Motor-trigeminal 163, 342 Nucleus Z 226, 234 Oculomotor 32, 134, 169, 399 Olivary 200, 355, 364 Pallidum 195 Parasympathetic of facial nerve 188 Parasympathetic of glossopharyngeal nerve 189 Parasympathetic of vagus nerve 18 Paraventricular hypothalamus 483 Paraventricular thalamus 477 Pontine 199, 355 Pontine motor reticular formation 199, 468 Pontine sensory of trigeminal nerve 32, 227, 235 Pretectal 169, 399 Proprius 226 Putamen 195 Red 198, 355 Reticular formation 355 Rostral thalamic 449, 450, 476, 477 Septal 195, 449 Solitary Tract 189, 441, 467 Spinal tract of trigeminal 32, 147, 235, 467 Substantia nigra 198, 217, 364 Subthalamic 196 Suprachiasmatic 468 Supraoptic 483 Thalamic reticular 477, 479 Thoracic 222 Trapezoid body-dorsal 435 Trigeminal motor 31, 139 Trochlear 135 Ventral caudal lateral thalamus 225, 226, 233, 234, 442, 477, 479 Ventral caudal medial thalamus 227,237,442, 477, 479 Ventral lateral thalamus 356, 477, 479 Ventral rostral thalamus 196, 477, 479 Ventrolateral hypothalamus 468 Vestibular 225 Zona incerta 196 Nystagmus-Abnormal 325 Caloric 325 Congenital 345, 397 Jerk 320, 325 Normal (physiologic) 136, 320, 325 Pendular 324, 345 Positional 325 Postrotatory 326 Resting 325 Rotatory 325 Spontaneous 325 Vertical 325 Obsessive compulsive syndrome 405 Obtundation 481, 483 Occipital bone dysplasia 48, 72 Occipital bone malformation 47 Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation 268, 289 Octreotide 465 Oculomotor neurons Anatomy 134. 169 Clinical signs 137, 170 Diseases 138 Function 135 Oculus dextra 170 sinistra 170 uterque 170 Old English Sheepdog-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 368 Ivermectin toxicity 60 Olfaction 444 Olfactory bulb 444 Olfactory tractotomy 446 Olfactory tubercle 445 Oligodendroglia 25 Oligodendroglial dysplasia- Bull Mastiff 215 Charolais 312 Onion bulbs 125 Opisthotonus 205, 209, 212, 337, 339, 360, 481 Opsoclonus 215 Optic canal 397 chiasm 345, 397 cup 389 disc 393, 396 eye field 389 stalk 389 tract 33, 397 vesicle 389 Optic nerve- Anatomy 397 Decussation 392 Development 390 Hypoplasia 406 Injury 407 Optic neuritis 171, 333 Optic radiation 399 Optic thecogram 396 Organ-Circumventricular 442 Area postrema 441 Subcommissural 442 Subfornical 442 Organ of Corti 433 Organophosphate toxicity 96 Fenthion 96 Haloxon 159 Triorthocresyl phosphate 310 Orthostatic postural myoclonus 216 Ossification-Atlas-axis 268 Calvarial 48 Osteochondralcalcinosis 273 Osteochondrosis 269, 290 Osteopathy-Stylohyoid/temporohyoid 340 Otic placode 319 vesicle 319 Otitis media/interna Bilateral 336 Unilateral 146, 147, 328, 329, 335, 340, 343 Otocyst 319 Ototoxicity 382, 439 Oxybate sodium 471 Oxytocin 483 Pachygyria 45, 363 Pachymeninx 55 Pain 221 Center 451 Thalamic 238 Syndromes 238 Paleopallium 36, 444, 448 Pallidum 195, 206 Palmigrade posture 109 Palpebral reflex 147 Paradoxical sleep 468 Paradoxical vestibular disease 327, 333, 334, 344, 360, 379, 381 Parakeet-Renal adenocarcinoma 123 Paraneoplastic hypoglycemia 457 Paraparesis 114, 124, 126, 127, Paraplegia 109, 115, 123, 250, 252 Parasympathetic GVE-LMN 168 Parelaphostrongylus tenuis 305, 306 Paresis 86, 204 Lower motor neuron 86 Spastic 204 Upper motor neuron 205 Parkinson disease 217 Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis 218 Pars ciliaris retina 392 Pars intermedia dysfunction 484 Pars iridica retina 392 Pars optica retina Development 392- Histology 393 External limiting membrane 394 External nuclear layer 394 External plexiform layer 394 Ganglion 395 Internal limiting membrane 395 Internal nuclear layer 395 Internal plexiform layer 395 Nerve fiber layer 395 Photosensitive layer 394 Pigment epithelium of the retina 393 Parson (Jack) Russell terrier Axonopathy encephalomyelopathy (Hereditary ataxia) 384 Myasthenia gravis 93 Patellar reflex 82, 83, 112 Pathway-Central visual 398 Cerebellothalamocerebral 356 Cerebellorubrothalamocerebral 356 Cerebropontocerebellar 355, 400 Cerebrotectocerebellar 355, 400 Cerebrotectopontocerebellar 355, 400 Corticospinal 192 Retinotopic 399 Visual reflex 399 Peduncle-Caudal cerebellar 200, 355 Mamillary 450, 483 Middle cerebellar 356 Olfactory 445 Rostral cerebellar 199, 356 Pembroke Welsh corgi-Degenerative myelopathy 262 Penn Yan disease 344 Pentobarbital 467 Pergolide 485 Perilymph 320, 433 Perilymphatic duct 433 Persian cat-Mannosidosis 427 Persian tiger-Congenital nystagmus 346 Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous 392 Persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis 392 Peruvian Paso-Inherited tetany 212 p-glycoprotein 60 Phenobarbital 216,414, 463, 466 Phenoxybenzamine 187 Phenylephrine 176 Phenylpropanolamine 187 Physostigmine 469, 471 Pia mater 56 Pial-glial membrane 60 Pigment layer of retina 392 Pineal gland (body) 442 Placode-Branchial 30 Otic 30 Plantigrade posture 128 Planum nasolabiale 175 Plate-Alar 27 Basal 27 Cribriform 413 Floor 27 Neural 23 Roof 27 Pleasure center 451 Pleurothotonus 72, 205, 481 Plexus-Brachial 85, 104 Choroid 30, 33, 36, 37, 54 Enteric 443 Pelvic 184, 188 Pharyngoesophageal 153 Sacral 186 Tympanic 173 Plott Hound-Mucopolysaccharidosis 427 Pneumoventriculogram 75 Poikilothermia 484 Polioencephalomalacia 420 Amprolium toxicity 421 Anoxia 421 Hypoxia 421 Lead toxicity 420 Mercury toxicity 421 Osmolar Imbalance 422 Ovine copper deficiency 420 Salt toxicity 422 Sulfur toxicity 419 Thiamin deficiency 68, 205, 419 Water intoxication 422 Poliomyelomalacia 116 Aortic ligation 116 Ayshire calves 118 Cats-injury 116 Pigs-Selenium toxicity 117 Postoperative 117 Polled Dorset Sheep-Globoid cell leukodystrophy 427 Polled Herefords-Inherited tetany 211 Polydipsia 484 Polymicrocavitation 312 Polymicrogyria 44 Polymyopathy- Inherited autosomal recessive in Labrador Retriever (Type II deficiency polymyopathy) 98 Polysaccharide storage 217 Polymyositis 95 Polyneuritis 90. 96. 97 Polyneuritis equi 111 Polyneuropathy-Charcott-Marie-Tooth in humans 124 Distal Inherited in Leonbergers 124 Inflammatory 91 Inherited giant axonal-German Shepherd 125 Polyphagia 484 Polyradiculoneuritis 90 Polysaccharide storage myopathy 217 Polyuria 484 Pomeranian-Globoid cell leukodystrophy 427 Pons: Clinical signs 229, 500 Pontazuril 301 Pontine center-micturition 186 Pontine locus ceruleus 234 Poodle-Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Sphingomyelinosis 427 Glycoproteinosis 427 Porencephaly 43 Portography 513 Portosystemic shunt 425, 457, 513 Portuguese Water Dog-GM1 gangliosidosis Type 1 385, 427 Positive sharp waves 89 Postanesthetic-Blindness 421 Encephalopathy 421 Poliomyelmalacia 117 Postictal depression 454 Postural reactions 87, 204, 229, 244 Hemiwalking 87, 245 Hopping 87, 245 Paw/hoof replacement 87, 245 Placing 245 Wheelbarrowing 245 Posture-Decerebellate 205, 339, 360 Palmigrade 109, 128 Plantigrade 128 Potassium bromide 463, 466 Pouch-Hypophyseal 34 Pralidoxime 96 Prazosin 470 Prechordal mesenchyme 389 Prednisone 94,333, 414 Presbycusis 438, 439 Proboscis 42 Procainamide 207,213, 217 Prodrome 455 Progestins 453 Progressive neuronal abiotrophy-Kerry Blue Terriers 363 Projections-Corticonuclear 193 Corticopontine 355 - Corticospinal 193 - Thalamocortical 225, 234 Propofol 467 Proprioception-general Conscious 225, 227 Reflex-cerebellar 222 Propulsive behavior 205 Prosencephalon-Clinical signs 72, 161, 193, 204, 229, 238, 409 Development 33, 34 Duplication 44 Hypoplasia 39 Prostaglandin 233 Prostigmine 94 Protraction 202 Pseudomyotonia 90 Psychosine 280 Ptosis 139 Pug Dog-Necrotizing meningoencephalitis 411 Pupil dilation 139 Pupillary abnormalities-Case studies 170 Pupillary light reflex- Pathway 169, 400 Pupillary membrane 391 Pupils-Control 169 Parasympathetic 169 Sympathetic 173 In acute brain disease 182 Purkinje neurons 327 Putamen 195 Pygmy goats-Myotonia 207 Pyramid 192 Pyramidal system 192 Pyridostigmine 94 Pyrimethamine 301 Pyrrolizidine alkaloid 425 Quarter Horse-Inherited axonopathy 214 Queckenstedt maneuver 58 Rabies 124, 126, 161, 162 Rachischisis 50 Raclopride 470 Radial nerve injury 107 Radiation injury 460 Radiculitis-Neospora 114 Rage 451 Rambouillet Sheep-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Rat Terrier-Dystrophinopathy 99 Hypomyelination 214 Hypothyroidism 214 Receptor-Acetylcholine 78 Glutamate 459, 465 Glycine 211 Sensory 221 Red nucleus 198 Reelin 46, 362 Referred pain 443 Reflex-Anal 83 Biceps 85 Cranial crural muscle 84 Crossed extensor 204 Cutaneous trunci 86, 246 Dazzle 400 Extensor carpi radialis 85 Flexor 231 Gastrocnemius muscle 84 Inverse myotactic 202 Mass 204, 252 Micturition 187 Myotatic 212 Palpebral 147 Patellar 82, 83, 112, 245, 287 Pelvic limb 83 Perineal 83, 187, 287 Pupillary light 169, 399, 496 Spinal nerve 82, 245 Tendon 83 Thoracic limb 85 Topographic anatomy 83 Triceps 85 Viscerovisceral 444 Withdrawal (Flexor) 83, 85, 287 Reflex sympathetic dystrophy 190 Regurgitation 93, 153 Release from inhibition 204 REM sleep 468 Renshaw cell 209 Respiratory abnormalities 482 Reticular formation 199, 468 Retina-Development 392 Histology 393 Nasotemporal division 398 Rexed’s laminae 233 Rhabdomyolysis 130 Rhinencephalon 444, 448 Rhodopsin 393, 394 Rhombencephalon 25 Rhombic lip 32, 348 Risus sardonicus 20 Rolling 324, 337, 344 Root-Dorsal 28 Ventral 27 Rottweiler-Distal neuropathy 274 Dystrophinopathy 274 Encephalomyelopathy-polyneuropathy 159, 273 Laryngeal paralysis 159 Leukoencephalomyelopathy 274 Meningeal fibrosis:C2-C3 271, 272 Motor neuron disease 101, 274 Neuroaxonal dystrophy 274 Polyneuropathy (axonopathy) 274 Primary demyelination 274 Running fits 452 Russian knapweed 206 Saccule 320 Sacral GSE LMN 186 Sacrocaudal dysfunction 111, 112 s-adenosylmethionine 262 Salers-Mannosidosis 427 Salivary Glands 189 Salt toxicity 458 Saluki-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Motor neuron disease 101 Samoyed-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 369 Cerebellar hypoplasia 362 Hypomyelination 214 Lissencephaly 362 Myasthenia gravis 93 Sarcocystis neurona 107, 126, 143, 160, 163, 297, 341, 342 SARDS 171, 401, 404 Satiety center 484 Scala tympani 433 vestibuli 433 Schiff-Sherrington syndrome 248, 250, 252 Schmorl’s nodes 251 Schwann cell disorder 25 Scoliosis 48, 72, 305 Scopolamine 469 Scottie cramp 2 17 Scotttish Highland calf-Cerebellar malformation 373 ScotttishTerrier-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 368 Movement disorder 217 Scottie cramps 217 Scratching 48, 72 Seizure causes-457 Intracranial: Degeneration 419, 457 Idiopathic 406, 458 Inflammation 457 Injury 457 Malformation 457 Neoplasm 457 Extracranial :Electrolyte abnormality 458 Hepatic encephalopathy 457 Hyperlipidemia 458 Hyperthermia 458 Hypoglycemia 457 Hypoxia 458 Intestinal parasitism 458 Uremia 458 Seizure classification 455 Cluster 455 Complex partial 451, 452 Focal 455 Generalized (grand mal) 455 Jacksonian 455 Myoclonic 213 Psychomotor 451, 452 Simple Partial 218, 455 Status epilepticus 455 Seizure disorders 454 Case examples 461, 463 Definition 434 Examination 459 Pathogenesis 454 Terminology 454 Threshold 455 Treatment 465 Selegeline 471 Selenium toxicosis 117 Semicoma 481 Senechio spp 425 Sensorineual deafness-Congenital inherited 438 Acquired 439 Sensory ganglioradiculitis 237 Sensory modality 222 Sensory systems 222 Septal area 445, 448, 449 Septal nuclei 195 Septum-Bullae 330 Dorsal median 27 Pellucidum 37, 449 Serotonin 217, 233, 234, 468, 469 Serum hepatitis 425 Shaker foals 92 Shetland Pony-Narcolepsy 469 Shiloh Shepherd-Thoracolumbar degenerative joint disease 263 Shivers 217 Shorthair pointers-sensory neuropathy 237 Shorthorn-Glycogenosis 427 Shropshire sheep-Myotonia 207 Siamese cat- Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Congenital nystagmus 346 Congenital peripheral vestibular disease 336 Congenital strabismus 139, 346 GM1 gangliosidosis Type 2 427 Mucopolysaccharidosis 427 Sphingomyelinosis 427 Siberian-Husky cross racing dogs-Laryngeal paralysis 159 Sinus-Cavernous 139 Dorsal longitudinal 56 Slap test 288 Sleep-Abnormal 468 Anatomy 468 Deprivation 470 Movement disorder 473 Normal 468 Paralysis 468 Slow wave 468 Smooth Fox Terrier-Axonopathy-encephalomyelopathy (Hereditary ataxia) 384 Myasthenia gravis 93 Snake envenomation 96 Soft-coated Wheaton Spaniel-Movement disorder 218 Solanum fastigiatum 377 Solanum vivarum 377 Sole plate 78 Somali cat-Myasthenia gravis 93 Somatostatin 463 Somatotopic organization 225 Somesthetic cerebral cortex 225, 228, 233 Sonic Hedgehog 389, 397 South Hampshire Sheep-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Space-Perivascular 56 Subarachnoid 55 Subdural 55 Spastic Paresis 212 Syndrome 213 Spasticity 204 Special proprioception system 319 Special somatic afferent system-hearing 433 vision 34, 394 Special visceral afferent system-olfaction 444 taste 30, 444 Spheroids 125 Sphingomyelinase 427 Sphingomyelinosis 427 Spike disease 218 Spina bifida 46, 50 Spinal cord-Anatomy 240 Clinical signs: Horse, Farm Animals 288, 289 Clinical signs: Small Animal 243, 246 Development 27 Diseases: Horse, Farm animals 289, 306 Small animals 250 Malformation 48 Segments 79 Spinal dysraphism 51 Spinal muscular atrophy 100, 312 Spinal nerve: Anatomy 78 Function 8 General proprioception 222 General somatic afferent 229 General somatic efferent LMN 78 Reflex evaluation 83, 85, 245, 287, 494 Spinal shock 248, 252 Spinal walking 202 Spindle-Neuromuscular 200 Spiral lamina 433 organ 433 Spondylomyelopathy, caudal cervical 271 Spondylosis deformans 264 Spongioblast 24 Springer Spaniel- Fucosidosis 427 Hypomyelination 214 Myasthenia gravis 93 Stair test 359 Stanchion paralysis 147 Standard poodle: idiopathic epilepsy 458 Stapes 320 Star gazing 484 Statoconia 321 Statoconiorum membrane 321 Status epilepticus 455, 467 Stenosis-Cervical vertebral 269 Lumbosacral vertebral 112 Mesencephalic aqueduct 71 Stiff man syndrome 215 Stifle arthritis 316 Stockard’s paralysis 101 Strabismus-Convergent 398 Denervation 137 Dorsomedial 138, 420 Hydrocephalic 72 Medial 137 Ventrolateral 139 Vestibular 139 Streptococcus equi 417. Streptomycin 329 Stria-Acoustic 434 Habenularis thalamus 449 Lateral olfactory 445 Medial olfactory 445 Terminalis 36, 448, 483 Vascularis 433, 438 Strongylus vulgaris 424 Strychnine toxicity 211 Stupor 481 Stylohyoidosteopathy 149, 340 Subarachnoid diverticulum (cyst) 56, 263 Subarachnoid space 55 Subcommissural organ 442 Subependymal layer 37 Subfalcine herniation 58 Subfornical organ 442 Subluxation: Atlantoaxial 268 Substance-Central grey 234 P 234, 237 Substantia gelatinosa 230, 234 Substantia nigra 198, 205, 206 Subthalamus 476 Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) 171, 401, 404 Suffolk Draft Horse-Narcolepsy 469 Suffolk Sheep-GM1 gangliosidosis Type 2 427 Sulcus: Dorsal lateral 229 Hippocampal 449 Lateral rhinal 36, 448 Limitans 26 Sulfadiazine 301 Sulfur toxicity 419 Superoxide dismutase 102 radicle 102 Suppurative meningoencephalitis 162 Suture-Frontoparietal 48 Swainsona spp. 115 Sweating 176, 177 Swedish Lapland dog-Multisystem abiotrophy (Motor neuron disease) 101 Sweeney 109 Swimmer syndrome 115 Sydney Silkie-Glucocerebrosidosis 427 Sympathetic GVE-LMN: Micturition 185 Ocular 173, 174 Synaptic cleft 78 Syncope 470 Syndrome-Adiposogenital 484 Adversive 72, 205, 460, 481 Beagle pain 281 Brown-Sequard 234 Cauda equina 112 Chediak-Higashi 346 Collie eye 406 Dandy Walker 362 Feline hyperesthesia 464 Froelich 484 Horner 105, 143, 147, 155, 173, 174, 336 Key-Gaskel 189 Lavendar foal 212 Limber tail 113 Lumbosacral 112 Maladjustment 421 Obsessive compulsive 465 Pain 238 Rage 453 Schiff-Sherrington 248 Spastic 212 Spinal shock 248 Swimmer 115 Thalamic pain 238 White shaker 215 Wobbler 269,290 Synovial cyst 293 Syringohydromyeliua 47, 48, 69, 188, 382 System-Adrenergic 168 Ascending reticular activating 199, 234, 402, 479 Auditory 433 Cholinergic 169 Enteric nervous 29, 189, 443 Extrapyramidal 195 Functional 3 General proprioception 4, 221 General somatic afferent 3, 221 General somatic efferent 4. 77, 134 General visceral afferent 3, 441 General visceral efferent 4, 168 Hyposubthalamic reticular 479 Hypothalamo-adenohypophyseal 483 Hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal 483 Limbic 448 Lower motor neuron 77 Parasympathetic 168 Pyramidal 192 Special proprioception 4, 319 Special somatic afferent 3, 433, 389 Special visceral afferent 4, 441 Sympathetic 168 Tectotegmentospinal 173 Upper motor neuron 192 Vestibular 319 Tapetum lucidum 393, 397 Tarsus-dropped 128 Taste 444 Taste bud 444 Telencephalon-Anatomy 195, 448 Development 35 Temperature regulation 484 Temporohyoid osteopoathy 149, 340 Tensilon 93 Test- Menace response 360, 399, 401 Olfaction 445 Pupillary light reflex 169, 400 Slap 288 Stair 359 Swinging light 171, 401 Tetanospasmin 209 Tetanus 209 Facial 150 Focal 209 Generalized 209 Tetany-Diffuse 211, 217 Focal 212 Tetraparesis- LMN 97 UMN 271, 279 Tetraplegia LMN 90, 118 UMN 266 Thalamencephalon 476 Thalamic pain syndrome 238 Thalamus- Anatomy 476 Clinical signs 480 Development 33 Diffuse cortical projection system 477, 478 Direct cortical projection system 477, 478 Function 477, 480 Nuclear groups 477 Thalamic association system 479 Thalamic reticular system 477, 478 Theiler’s disease 421, 425 Thermography 177, 179 Thiamin deficiency 68, 339, 419 Thiaminase 419, 420 Third eyelid –Protrusion 183, 210, 360 Thirst 484 Thomsen disease 207 Thromboembolism-Aortic 115 Thrombotic meningoencephalitis 161, 162, 344 Tibetan Mastiff-inherited hypertrophic neuropathy 125 Tibetan Terrier-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 427 Tick paralysis 95 Titubation 359 Toltrazuril 301 Toxicity-Aminoglycoside antibiotics 439 Amprolium 421 Arsenicals 315, 460 Caffeine (chocolate) 457 Chlorinated hydrocarbons 457, 460 Dopaminergic neurotoxin 206 Ethylene glycol 457, 460 Fenthion 96 Fluroacetate(1080) 460 Haloxon 159, 310 Hexachlorophene 215, 460 Lead 215, 452 Mercury 421 Metaldehyde 215, 460 Metronidazole 333, 334 Mycotoxin 215 Organophosphate 215, 310, 457, 460 Penitrem A 215 Pyrethrin 215 Pyrrolizidine 425 Salt 464 Selenium 464 Strychnine 211 Sulfur 419 Trichlorfon 214 Triorthocresyl phosphate 310 Xylitol 457 Toxins that induce coma 482 Toxoplasma gondii 95 Tract-Cervicospinocerebellar 224 Cervicospinovestibular 225 Corticonuclear (corticobulbar) 193 Corticoreticular 200 Corticorubral 199 Corticospinal 193 Cuneocerebellar 222 Habenular interpeduncular 450 Hypothalamohypophyseal 483 Lateral corticospinal 193 -Lateral olfactory 445 Lissauer 230 Olfactory 445 Optic 33, 169 Mamillotegmental 450, 483 Mamillothalamic 450, 483 Medullary reticulospinal 200 Mesencephalic of trigeminal nerve 227 Olivocerebellar 355 Pallidohypothalamic 483 Paraventriculohypophyseal 483 Pontine reticulospinal 199 Propriospinal 222 Pyramidal 192 Quintothalamic 227, 237 Reticulocerebellar 355 Reticulospinal 186, 199, 205 Rubrocerebellar 355 Rubronuclear (bulbar) 199 Rubrospinal 199 Solitariothalamic 442 Solitary 189, 441 Spinal-trigeminal 32, 147, 234 Spinocerebellar 355 Cervical 224 -Cranial 224 Dorsal 222 Ventral 222 Spinocervical 226 Spinocervicothalamic 226, 234 Spinomesencephalic 234, 399 Spinotectal 399 Spinothalamic 233, 442 Spinovestibular 248, 328 Supraopticohypophyseal 483 Tectocerebellar 355 Tectonuclear (bulbar) 399, 400, 436 Tectospinal 399, 436 Tectotegmentospinal 173 Tectothalamic 399 Thalamocortical 225, 233 Tuberohypophyseal 433 Ventral corticospinal 193 Vestibulocerebellar 324, 355 Vestibulospinal 204, 322 Vestibulothalamic 324 Transketolase 420 Transtentorial herniation 58 Transverse brain sections 6 Transverse fibers of pons 199 Trapezoid body 384, 434 Tremor 214, 360 Trigeminal neuritis 142, 238 Trigeminal neurons: Anatomy 139 Clinical signs 139 Diseases 139, 235 Trismus 96 Trochlear neurons Anatomy 135 Clinical signs 137 Diseases 139 Function 135 Trunk-Dorsal and ventral vagal 189 Vagosympathetic 173, 175, 178, 189 Tube-Neural 23 Tuber cinereum 482 Two engine gait 247, 274 Tympanic membrane 278, 319, 433 Tyrosine 29 Uncontrolled involuntary muscle contractions 206 Muscle 206 Nervous system 209 Uremia 458 Urine-Continence and storage 186 Incontinence 187 Upper motor neuron system (UMN)- Anatomy 192 Clinical signs 204 Diseases 204 Function 200 Urine spraying 446 Utriculus 320 Uvea 391 Vagal neurons Anatomy 152 Clinical signs 153 Diseases 153 Vagal stimulation 467 Vancomycin 329 Vascular compromise 379, 413, 457 Vasculitis, Equine Herpes virus 1 302 Vasopressin 483 Velum- Caudal medullary 30 Rostral medullary 135 Ventricles 30 Veratrum californicum 42, 389 Vertebral column 79 Vertebral fracture 113, 305, 313, 314, 315, 316 Vertebral malformation Caudal 50 Cervical 268 Thoracolumbar 308, 315 Vertebral malformation-malarticulation 268 Vertebral scoliosis 305 Vesicle-optic 34 telencephalic 35 Vestibular disease 328 Benign idiopathic canine peripheral 328 Benign idiopathic equine peripheral 341 Benign idiopathic feline peripheral 335 Bilateral peripheral 337, 336 Central 327, 331, 332, 334, 337, 338, 341, 342 Congenital 336 Paradoxical 327,333, 334, 344, 360, 379, 381 Unilateral peripheral 324, 329, 336, 340 Vestibular neuronitis 328 Vestibular receptor 319 Vestibular system- Anatomy and physiology 319 Clinical signs 324 Development 319 Vestibule 320 Villi-Arachnoid 59 Virus-Aino 44 Akabane 44 Bluetongue 43 Bovine viral diarrhea 44, 371 Cache Valley 44 Canine distemper 376 Canine herpes 361 Caprine arthritis encephalitis 309 Chuzan 44 Circa 214 Eastern equine encephalitis 423 Equine herpesvirus I 302 Feline infectious peritonitis 339 Feline panleukopenia 44, 369 Hog cholera 214, 376 Ovine herpes 162 Rabies 124, 126 162, 289, 313 Swine fever 214 Visna 309 West Nile 126, 289, 423 Visceral afferent systems 441 Visceral pain 443 Visual field 398 Vitamin A deficiency 70, 407 Vitamin E deficiency-Motor neuron disease 101 Myelopathy 294 Myopathy 130 Visual system- Clinical evaluation 399 Clinical signs 400 Diseases 409 Embryology 389 Pathway for conscious perception 398 Pathway for reflexes 399 Vitriturf 244, 491 Vizsla-Idiopathic epilepsy 458 Von Gierke disease 457 Wallerian degeneration 88, 240, 290 Weaver Brown Swiss 312 Weimaranar-Myelodysplasia 51 Spinal dysraphism 51 Welsh Mountain Sheep-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 375 West Highland White Terrier- Acquired action related repetitive myoclonus 215 Globoid cell leukodystrophy 280, 427 West Nile virus 126 White shaker dogs 215 Wide head excursions 327 Wilm tumor 255 Wire Fox Terrier-Cerebellar hypoplasia 362 Lissencephaly 46, 362 Megaesophagus 154 Wirehaired Dachshund-ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Wobbler syndrome 269, 290 Xylitol toxicity 457 Xyrem 471 Yellow star thistle 206 Yohimbine 471 Yorkshire pig-Cerebellar cortical abiotrophy 376 GM2 gangliosidosis Type 3 427 Yorkshire Terrier-Necrotizing leukoencephalitis 411 Portosystemic shunt 457 Yugoslavian Sheepdog-Ceroid lipofuscinosis 428 Zona incerta 196 Zone-Autonomous 231 Zonisamide 367

Source: http://www.neurovideos.vet.cornell.edu/3rdedindex.pdf

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EL VIAGRA Y LAS FOCASEnrique Soto Pérez de CelisLa globalización es un fenómeno mundial quepor médicos occidentales, estos “medica-ran utilizados por los chinos para preparares hoy en día más patente que nunca antesmentos” siguen siendo el tratamiento de elec-los “medicamentos” contra la impotencia. Seen la historia de la humanidad. Siempre queción para la impotencia en Chin

Microsoft word - welcome to our practice rev 5.11.10.doc

Matthew Romberg, MD, PA Welcome to Our Practice Congratulations on your pregnancy! From all of us at Heart of Texas Woman's Center, we look forward to sharing such a special time with you and your family. Please know that we will do our very best to see that your pregnancy and delivery are as pleasant and exciting as you are anticipating. Because our office is a single physician practice,

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