Cool site pour acheter des pilules http://achetermedicaments2014.com/ Ne pas se perdre venir sur.

Lake linden-hubbell high school

LAKE LINDEN-HUBBELL HIGH SCHOOL
ATHLETIC DEPARTMENT
PERMISSION FOR ATHLETIC COMPETITION
Name _________________________________________________________________________________________ Address _______________________________________________________________________________________ Age _________ Grade ________ Phone ____________________ Sports not to be engaged in _______________ Parent’s or Guardian’s Consent
We have read and fully understand the Lake Linden-Hubbell High School athletic policies concerning the conditions, which will govern all students who participate in Lake Linden-Hubbell athletics. We will do our best to see that our son/daughter abides by all of the rules and regulations as long as he/she desires to participate in athletics. I further understand that my son or daughter will be expected to adhere firmly to all established athletic policies of the school district and the Michigan High School Athletic Association. I hereby give my consent for my son or daughter to engage in interscholastic athletics and for the disclosure to the MHSAA of information otherwise protected by FERPA and HIPAA for the purpose of determining eligibility for interscholastic athletics; and I understand the possibility that serious injury may result from participating in athletic activities. He/she has my permission to accompany the team as a member on its out-of-town trips. We also understand that the Board of Education carries no athletic insurance and does not assume responsibility for injuries sustained in practice or games/meets. If insurance coverage for injuries is desired, we recognize that such coverage is the responsibility of the parents. It is understood that the school no longer offers an insurance option. Unless the office is notified, sport team pictures and candid pictures may be included on the school web site. No names will be included with the pictures. We want our son/daughter to have the privilege of participating in interscholastic athletics at Lake Linden-Hubbell High School. If there are sports in which we do not want him/her to engage, it has been noted above. I give my consent for Aspirus Keweenaw personnel to administer pre and post injury concussion assessment testing as a
preventative measure. The written memory testing procedures are administered during school hours or before a practice.
I understand I may opt out of this testing for my student by calling the school at 296-6681. I have read the provided
education materials on concussions. Please return pages1 and 2.

_____________________________________ ____________________________________ Student Acknowledgement
I have never received money or negotiable certificates for merchandise in any amount, nor any emblematic award or merchandise worth more than twenty-five dollars ($25.00) for participating in athletic events, nor have I ever competed under an assumed name. After I have represented my school in any sport, I will not compete in any outside athletic contest in this sport until after my school season has been completed. I understand that I am expected to adhere firmly to all established athletic policies of my school district and the Michigan High School Athletic Association, such as those previously mentioned above as examples but which do not present all the policies to which I am subject. I have read and fully understand the Lake Linden-Hubbell High School athletic policies concerning the conditions, which will govern all students who participate in Lake Linden-Hubbell athletics. I do hereby accept the responsibility to uphold all rules and regulations so long as I desire to participate in athletics. LAKE LINDEN-HUBBELL HIGH SCHOOL
POLICIES GOVERNING THE ATHLETIC PROGRAM

Section 1 – Policies directly related to the coaching staff.
Section 2 – Policies directly related to the student participation.
SECTION 1

I.
The objectives of competitive athletics at Lake Linden-Hubbell High School must parallel those of education in general. The emphasis must first and last be on education. The student must always be the primary concern and the best safeguard in this direction is the educated and dedicated leadership. Athletics should be kept within the framework of the total school program. A. Participation 1. One of the primary goals of athletics must be general participation by the student body. 2. Athletics should develop your ability to cooperate with a group. They include organizing, planning, listening, sharing, flexibility, and leadership. Examples are: a. actively participate on a team and know team rules. b. know the team members as individuals. c. express ideas to other team members. d. be sensitive to the team members’ ideas and views. e. be willing to compromise if necessary to best accomplish the goals of the team. f. be a leader or follower to best accomplish the goals of the team. 3. It is desired that there be a fairly high percentage of participation from the general student body in athletic programs. 1. Winning is important and should be strived for, especially at the varsity level. But it is significant to note that winning is not the primary reason for an athletic program. 1. Although consistently striving to win, it is important that we at least be competitive with the opposition in our many athletic engagements. There is no shame in losing a hard fought contest, but never being “in the ball game” game after game is something else. 1. Athletics should at all times be intended to provide enjoyment for our participants. 2. Although the pressure to consistently win is ever present from fans and parents alike, it should be remembered that our kids who participate in athletics expect to have fun doing so. It should be kept in mind that kids can and often do have fun even though they lose the game. 1. Although the outcome of many of our athletic contests will not always have the desired endings, it should be remembered that our athletes should still display good sportsmanship before, during, and after the contest. “Poor Losers” set a poor example. Likewise “Poor Winners” appear even worse. We should be proud but humble in victory. 2. We are not only responsible for the sportsmanship attitude of our athletes, but we are also responsible for the action of our fans as wel . Every effort should be made to control our fans at al athletic contests. Removal from the game may at times be a necessity and must be enforced. 1. Since athletic programs and coaches, in particular, are constantly under fire from fans and other disgruntled people, there must be strong unity between coaches and administrators. Administrators are generally expected not to succumb to fan criticism and pressure applied to coaches. Administrators should usual y be in the coach’s corner. Realistically, however, situations do arise where coaches must be reprimanded for their actions. Such action should be consistent with the general philosophy of the athletic program. G. Level of Sport and Individual Participation 1. It is desired that the emphasis on winning be considerable less at the lower levels of participation. Consequently, equal participation should be stressed at the elementary level. At the junior high level each team member should play about one quarter based on the philosophy of “equal time for equal effort”. By this we mean that the coach make an effort to give substitute players as much playing time as possible, yet also make an effort to win the game. At the freshmen level, the same philosophy as the junior high should be followed. At the junior varsity level winning is more important. The coach should make every effort, where possible, to get each player in the game. The more playing time a player receives, the more the coach is contributing to the development of those who are front line players. At the varsity level, there are no playing time requirements. But it is understood that the coach should make every effort possible to play all athletes when the conditions of the game allow for it. The main emphasis at the varsity level is to be competitive with other teams and to win. It is also significant to mention that the coach at any level reserves the right to sit a player down for disciplinary reasons/unexcused-missed practices. Team Sports Offered at Lake Linden-Hubbell A. Football – Varsity, Junior Varsity, and Junior High – Boys B. Basketball – Varsity, Junior Varsity, and Junior High – Boys and Girls C. Volleyball – Varsity and Junior Varsity – Girls D. Hockey – Varsity – Boys (coop with Hancock) E. Track – Varsity, Junior Varsity, and Junior High – Boys and Girls F. Golf – Varsity – Boys and Girls A. The coach in charge must submit to the athletic director a tentative team roster by Friday of the first full week of practice. It is also the coach’s obligation to report any additions or deletions that may occur after the first report. The athletic director will follow up with the Master and Current Eligibility lists. B. A team roster and numbers of the players (football, basketball, volleyball and hockey) must be submitted no later than seven days prior to the first scheduled contest. C. It is recommended that no student be permitted to transfer from one sport to another sport during the current season. The coaches involved, the athletic director and the principal must approve any such changes. A. All practices should comply with M.H.S.A.A. regulations. B. Sunday practices, skull sessions, or team meetings should be avoided. If a coach thinks a Sunday practice is necessary, he should first get it approved by the athletic director. C. All practices should conclude within a two-hour period, normally 3:30-5:30. There a number of instances where coaches see fit to practice longer. Hopefully this would be the exception and not the rule. 1. Open gyms cannot be mandatory and will not affect the athlete’s status on the team. 2. Open gyms will not take place during the school day of another sports season. 1. Football – according to the M.H.S.A.A. regulations. 2. Volleyball – according to the M.H.S.A.A. regulations. 3. Boys Basketball – practice will begin no earlier than the Monday following the last scheduled varsity football game and in accordance with MHSAA regulations. 4. Girls Basketball – practice will begin no earlier than the Monday following the last scheduled varsity volleyball game and in accordance with MHSAA regulations. 5. Track – practice will begin no earlier than the Monday following the last scheduled varsity boys’ basketbal game or the last scheduled varsity girls’ basketball game and in accordance with MHSAA regulations. A. It will be the responsibility of the athletic director to arrange the competitive schedule, grades 7-12, in B. All aspects of practice scrimmages with other schools should be arranged for and handled by the coach involved. Care should be taken to avoid violation of M.H.S.A.A. regulations. C. Schedules should be completed as early as possible and given to the principal so that dates will be known and placed on the school calendar for the year. D. Any changes of schedule, cancellations or make-up dates will be the responsibility of the athletic director. A. All coaches are responsible for the conduct of their teams (practice, locker room, to and from games, and B. When away from home, the coach must make sure to check the locker room of the host school to see that it has been left in order. Any damage must be reported to the LL-HHS principal and athletic director as soon as possible. C. All coaches are to make every effort to develop a standard of sportsmanship and citizenship which students, parents, and community will respect. D. Each coach must record all equipment issued to each player. All equipment should be kept in good E. Each coach is responsible for proper collection, storage and inventory of material and equipment connected with his/her particular sport at the end of the season. F. Each coach may conduct his/her practice sessions as he/she sees fit within the bounds of the school’s practice policies and the athletic director. G. Coaches are responsible for the cleanliness of their facility – gym, locker room, and coaches’ office. H. The coach is to be responsible for closing up the locker room. There must be a coach present until the Coaches are not to use players that have been ill or injured if competition would be injurious to the student. J. All coaches must remember their responsibility to the school by all means academically – teacher first, K. No purchases may be made for athletic equipment unless authorized by the athletic director. L. Coaches’ personal conduct at practice and games must be an example of the highest standard. M. Each coach is responsible to enforce locker requirements. N. Team rosters must be given to the athletic director at the required time. O. Any problem or doubt as to the duty and responsibility is to be cleared through the athletic director and P. At the completion of a season the coach involved should submit a list of award winners and a list of players and the amount owed for lost or damaged equipment to the principal’s office. Q. The coach, with the cooperation of the athletic director and principal, shall plan and arrange for all special Public Act 187 prohibits school employees and volunteers from promoting or supplying dietary supplements, which carry claims of enhanced athletic performance. The law covers adrostenedione, creatine, and any compound labeled as performance enhancing. 1. Shall be responsible to the junior/senior high school principal. 2. Shall be responsible for all equipment used in the athletic program. 3. Shall be responsible for the overall organization of the athletic program. 1. Shall prepare schedules for all school teams. 2. Shall hire and make out contracts for all officials. 3. Shall attend all league meetings. 4. Shall work closely with the principal in drawing up eligibility lists. 5. Shall cooperate with the principal in securing workers for all contests at home. 6. Shall provide the transportation director with schedules of all athletic events and notify the director of the buses needed for each event. 7. Shall be responsible for organizing the necessary publicity for all team sports. 8. Shal arrange dates and times for students’ physicals and notify all prospective team members 9. With the aid of the coaches, shall inventory and study equipment and project the needs of the 10. Shall interpret athletic policy to coaches, parents, team members and teachers. 11. Along with the coach involved and the principal, shall handle discipline problems arising from 12. Shall evaluate all coaches annually. A. Hire all personnel for athletic contests who shall be paid from the general fund. B. Shall prepare and administer weekly school eligibility checks. C. Shall be consulted and shall help make the decision on all discipline problems arising from the trailing SECTION 2
I.
A. All students must be eligible under M.H.S.A.A. regulations. In addition all students must satisfy the eligibility regulations of Lake Linden-Hubbell High School. B. Any student in grades 9-12 who is declared ineligible because of transfer status by the M.H.S.A.A. or because of scholastic difficulties may practice with the team but cannot dress or take part in the scheduled interscholastic events. A. Any student who participates in any extra-curricular event including, but not limited to, athletics, teacher and library aides, student work staff, office aides, cheerleading, annual staff, student council, quiz bowl, and managers must comply with the following eligibility criteria: A student carrying the standard of six (6) elective and required classes must pass five (5) of the six (6) classes. A student carrying seven (7) elective and required classes must pass six (6) of the seven (7) classes. A student carrying five (5) classes or less must pass all of them to remain eligible. The academic/eligibility status of a student having a schedule that is customized to address an individual need will be subject to review by a team to consist of the Principal an Athletic Director and at least one of the following people: Coach(s), Advisor and Teacher. A decision made to determine extra-curricular participation for the assessment week will remain in effect until the following Monday of the event season. A minimum of a “D-“ is required for passing status. B. Implementation and specifics of policy. 1. A two-week grace period is allowed for each student at the beginning of each semester. During this grace period the state eligibility requirements will be followed. 2. The eligibility period will be from week to week based on accumulative grades and not individual test scores. Multiple methods of assessment must be utilized on weekly basis with a minimum of three grades used. 3. Academic status and eligibility will be recorded before 3:30 p.m. on the Friday preceding the week of co-curricular involvement in the principal’s office. 4. This policy will apply to grades 7-12. 5. To determine semester eligibility, M.H.S.A.A. guidelines will be followed. “No student shall compete in any athletic contest who does not have a passing grade from the beginning of the semester to the date seven (7) calendar days prior to the contest, in studies aggregating at least 66 percent of a full time students potential class load. A student must be passing 5 of 7 classes to be eligible. The period of ineligibility under the previous academic term would be 60 scheduled school days. The student would become eligible on the 61st day, provided they are passing. In determining the number of hours of credit work per week under this rule, review and extra-curricular work, and work for which credit previously has been received, shal not be counted.” 6. Any student who is eligible (under the present policy) at the end of the current semester will be eligible at the beginning of the new semester. 7. Eligibility requirements for special education students will be the same as regular education students unless otherwise determined by the principal, counselor and teacher(s) involved. C. The principal, athletic director and the coach of the sport will consider academic standards and disciplinary action as a result of extremely poor school conduct in determining eligibility. 1. A student with an excused absence for the morning half day of school will be permitted to attend 2. A participant not in school during a school day may not practice unless it was a previously 3. A student should always consult the coach before missing practice. Missing practice or a game without a good reason shall be severely dealt with. A. All students are expected to furnish their own practice equipment and clothing. B. The school holds all students responsible for equipment issued to them. The student must pay for any damaged or lost equipment. The coach and athletic director will establish Price lists. C. The athletic department will not be responsible for personal equipment, clothing or personal belongings lost or damaged due to a student’s negligence. D. Football players must purchase their own shoes. A. All money and valuables are to be locked in lockers issued to students. B. No athletic equipment, player clothing or other personal property is to be left on the floor or lockers (other than the assigned locker) after practice or after a game. C. “Horseplay” in the locker room is not permitted. It is the overwhelming opinion of health educators that athletes perform best when they follow intelligent training rules, which include restrictions on the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs. Medical research clearly substantiates the fact that continued use of tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs produces harmful effects on the human organism. The coaching staff of the Lake Linden-Hubbell Public Schools, concerned with the health habits of the students of this community, is convinced that athletics and the use of tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs are not compatible. Because of these reasons, rigid training regulations are a requirement for team membership and event participation. It is the intent of the Coaching Staff, Administration and Board of Education to provide participation requirements that every student must meet to allow for their participation in athletics. Furthermore, it is the District’s intent to emphasize the importance of good health and abstinence from the use and possession of all tobacco, alcohol products, NCAA banned-drugs (see list below), and illegal drugs. Students who violate these policies shall be removed from athletic practices and competitions according to the restrictive policies set forth in the District’s Athletic Policies. A. Drinking and/or possession of alcoholic beverages, smoking, using and/or possession of tobacco in any form and the use and/or possession of illegal drugs/NCAA banned-drugs are forbidden.
The NCAA list of banned-drug classes is subject to changes by the NCAA Executive Committee.
Contact NCAA education servicesorg/health-safety for the current list. The term “related
compounds” comprises substances that are included in the class by their pharmacological action and/or
chemical structure. No substance belonging to the prohibited class may be used, regardless of
whether it is specifically listed as an example
.
Many nutritional/dietary supplements contain NCAA banned substances. In addition, the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration (PDA) does not strictly regulate the supplement industry; therefore purity and
safety of nutritional dietary supplements cannot be guaranteed. Impure supplements may lead to a
positive NCAA drug test. The use of supplements is at the student-athlete’s own risk. Student-athletes
should contact their institution’s team physician or athletic trainer for further information.
Bylaw 31.2.3. Banned Drugs. The following is a list of banned-drug classes, with examples of
substances under each class:

(a) Stimulants:
amiphenazole
and related compounds.

(b) Anabolic Agents:
anabolic steroids

androstenediol
and related compounds
gestrinone
mesterolone
other anabolic agents
methandienone

(c) Substances Barred for Specific Sports:
Rifle:
alcohol
and related compounds

(d) Diuretics:
acetazolamide
trichlormelhiazide and related compounds
(e) Street Drugs:
heroin

(f) Peptide Hormones and Analogues:
corticotrophtn (ACTH)
human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
luleinizing hormone (LH)
growth hormone (HGH, somatotrophin)
insulin like growth hormone (IGF-1)
All the respective releasing factors of the above-mentioned substances also are banned:
erythropoietin (EPO)
darbepoelin
(g) Definitions of positive depends on the following:

1 for caffeine – if the concentration in urine exceeds 15 microg rams/ml. 2 for testosterone – if the administration of testosterone or use of any other manipulation has the result of increasing the ratio of the total concentration of testosterone to that of epitestosterone in the urine to greater than 6:1, unless there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or palhological condition. 3 for marijuana and THC – if the concentration in the urine of THC metabolite exceeds 15 nanograrns/ml. 31.2.3.4.1 Drugs and Procedures Subject to Restrictions.
The use of the following drugs and/or procedures is subject to certain restrictions and may or may not be
permissible, depending on limitations expressed in these guidelines and/or quantities of these substances
used; (Revised: 8/15/89)
(a) Blood Doping. The practice of blood doping (the intravenous injection of whole blood, packed red
blood cells or blood substitutes) is prohibited, and any evidence confirming use will be cause for action
consistent with that taken for a positive drug test. (Revised: 8/15/89, 5/4/92)
(b) Local Anesthetics. The Executive Committee will permit the limited use of local anesthetics under
the following conditions:
(1) That procaine, xylocaine, carbocaine or any other local anesthetic may be used, but not cocaine; (2) That only local or topical injections can be used (i.e. intravenous injections are not permitted); (3) That use is medically justified only when permitting the athlete to continue the competition without potential risk to his or her health. (c) Manipulation of Urine Samples. The executive Committee bans the use of substances and methods
that alter the integrity and/or validity of urine samples provided during NCAA drug testing. Examples of
banned methods are catheterization, urine substitution and/or tampering or modification of renal excretion
by the use of diuretics, probenecid, bromantan or related compounds, and epitestosterone administration.
(Revised: 8/15/69, 6/17/92, 7/22/97)
(d) Beta 2 Agonists. The use of beta 2 agonists is permitted by inhalation only. (Adopted: 3/13/93)
(e) Additional Analysis. Drug screening for select nonbanned substances may be conducted for
nonpunitive purposes. (Revised: 8/15/89)
B. Any person who uses or knowingly possesses an androgenic anabolic steroid violates Michigan law and is punishable by imprisonment & fine. C. Misdemeanors or felonies other than traffic violations will also be cause for suspension. D. The above mentioned regulations will cover all students from the time they first report for any sport sponsored by Lake Linden-Hubbell High School until they have completed graduation in their senior year. E. Any student caught breaking training rules during the “sport season”, the “off season”, or during the “summer vacation” will be subject to the following penalties: 1. First offense: The penalty for the first violation will be 10% of the season following the 2. Second offense: The penalty for the second violation within one calendar year of the first violation will be 25% of the season following this second determined violation. 3. Third offense: The penalty for a third violation within a twelve month period of the first violation will be suspension from all extracurricular activities for a twelve month period from the date the third violation penalty is imposed. 4. Formulas will be applied in the same manner for the varsity, junior varsity, freshmen, and junior high teams. Percentages will be rounded off to the nearest whole number. Example: Football has a nine game regular season schedule so 9 x 10% = .9 = 1 game suspension. 1.4 or below will constitute a one game contest or tournament date penalty. 1.5 or above would constitute a two game, contest, or tournament date penalty. All first violation penalties will be a minimum of one game suspension. 5. Game suspensions will carry into the next sport season or the next school year if the violation occurs in a spring sport and the penalty is not completed. 6. In addition to the suspensions, after each violation the student athlete will be required to attend a minimum of one counseling session. Additional sessions with a prescribed professional counselor may be recommended as deemed necessary, before reinstatement of the athlete. 7. If an athlete participated in a sport with the intention of satisfying their suspension obligation and then quits prior to the end of the season, the fulfillment of the suspension will be nullified. Example: If a student participates in a spring sport to satisfy a suspension and quits after fulfilling their suspension obligation to be eligible for a fall sport. Administrative discretion will be used in the determination of the final decision. 8. In summation, in order for an athlete to fulfill suspension obligations by participating in an athletic season, that athlete must participate in all obligation including practices and interscholastic competitions during that entire sport season. F. The rules shall be sent to the parents with and agreement to be signed by parents and students that they have read the rules and agree to support them. This signed statement shall be returned before the student will be allowed to participate in sports. Procedure for the Investigation of Training Rule Violations A. Reports of alleged violations will be taken from school employees, coaches, administrators and school personnel, officers of the law, or any other source the administration feels warrants an investigation. B. The person reporting the violation must have witnessed the violation unless the report is of an arrest having been made or citation having been issued in which case the administration shall be responsible to investigate. C. Upon receiving the information under the above conditions an investigation is to be conducted by the principal and/or athletic director. The results of this investigation are to be used to determine whether or not action as prescribed by the athletic code should be taken. D. The principal and athletic director may confer at any point during the investigation and will arrive at a joint determination on final action. A written report will then be filed with the superintendent and the student and parents notified of the action. VII. Player Responsibilities – All Sports A. Each player must obtain a physical exam before participation in any sport. One exam may be used for B. If a student does not use the school’s scheduled physical exam date, an exam must be done by a doctor of the student’s choice and paid for by the student. C. Coaches may request participants to “dress up” on the day of games and also at the games. D. If you quit a sport after that sport’s first scheduled contest, you may be ineligible for participation in any other sport during the season of the sport dropped. Case is to be reviewed by the athletic director, coach of the sport dropped and the principal to determine the validity of the reason for quitting. Quitting a sport is a serious matter and should not be done without first consulting with the coach to explain your intentions. E. Each student should and must keep their academic work as their first priority. F. Courtesy is to be demonstrated on all occasions within the classroom and out. G. Each athlete’s appearance, talk and actions wil influence people’s opinions of yourself, your home, your team and your school. Conduct yourself in a manner that will leave the best opinion possible. H. Each athlete must ride home on the team bus unless excused by the coach involved to ride home with a parent. Students would be allowed to ride home with a parent only if they have a written note from the parent(s) or the parent(s) have verbally communicated with the coach. No other exceptions should be made. Athletes must get dropped off only back at school if riding the bus unless released to a parent at a pre-arranged location. Co-op athletes may be dropped off at the sending school. Only authorized students and adults who are serving in some capacity with the team will be allowed to ride team buses to and from the event. Each student is to adhere to the grooming regulation established by each coach. The athletic award is given by the Lake Linden-Hubbell Public Schools in special recognition of athletic performance. To qualify for this honor a student should meet the established qualifications of the school or be recommended by the coach of the sport in which the student participated. A. Any player who quits a sport or is removed from the sport will not receive a letter for that sport for that 1. Junior varsity basketball, volleyball, and football awards will be given out to a player who 2. Varsity basketball, volleyball, and football awards will be given out on the basis of successfully completing the season. Players brought up for post-season play will be awarded a letter according to the coach’s discretion. 3. A varsity letter will be awarded for track participation when a participant meets the criteria

Source: http://www.lakelinden.k12.mi.us/docs/Athletic%20Handbook.pdf

Microsoft word - gomes

GOMES JUNIOR, D.C. et al. Degeneração valvar crônica em canino - Relato de caso. PUBVET , Londrina, V.3, N. 36, Ed. 97, Art. 682, 2009. PUBVET, Publicações em Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. Degeneração valvar crônica em canino - Relato de caso Deusdete Conceição Gomes Junior3, Vinícius de Jesus Moraes3, Diana Mello Teixeira3, João Moreira da Costa Neto1, Emanoel Ferr

Eavex_avgr_eng_feb_11.indd

Avangard’s 2010 operational and fi nancial results surpassed our model’s expectations. Management recently announced FY10 net profi t of USD 171mn on revenue of USD 434mn. The company produced 4.4bn shell eggs (+22% YoY), and exported the equivalent of 1.0bn pcs of shell eggs. Avangard now expects to produce 6.0bn shell eggs in 2011, a 36.3% YoY increase, with dry egg product output uncha

Copyright © 2010-2014 Predicting Disease Pdf