[~1% of 14C betas transmitted through dead skin layer, i.e. 0.007 cm depth]
6.36E-12 Sv/Bq [0.023 mrem/uCi] of 14CO2 inhaled;
5.64E-10 Sv/Bq [2.09 mrem/uCi] organic compounds inhaled/ingested
Fat tissue [most labeled compounds]; bone [some labeled carbonates]
Ingestion, inhalation, puncture, wound, skin contamination absorption
Radiological Hazard: External Exposure - None from weak 14C beta
Internal Exposure & Contamination - Primary concern
III. SHIELDING None required - mCi quantities not an external radiation hazard
IV. DOSIMETRY MONITORING Urine bioassay is the most readily available method to assess intake [for 14C, no intake = no dose] Provide a urine sample to Radiation Safety whenever your monthly 14C use exceeds 5 mCi, or after any accident/incident in which an intake is suspected
V. DETECTION & MEASUREMENT Portable Survey Meters:
Geiger-Mueller [e.g. Bicron PGM, ~10% efficiency];
Beta Scintillator [e.g. Ludlum 44-21, ~5% efficiency]
Wipe Test: Liquid Scintillation Counting is the best readily available method for counting 14C wipe tests
VI. SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS - Avoid skin contamination [absorption], ingestion, inhalation, & injection [all routes of intake] - Many 14C compounds readily penetrate gloves and skin; handle such compounds remotely and wear
double gloves, changing the outer pair at least every 20 minutes.
1 Federal Guidance Report No. 11 [Oak Ridge, TN; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1988], p. 122, 156
1. Maintain your occupational exposure to radiation As Low As Reasonably Achievable [ALARA]. 2. Ensure all persons handling radioactive material are trained, registered, & listed on an approved
3. Review the nuclide characteristics on (reverse side) prior to working with that nuclide. Review the
protocol(s) authorizing the procedure to be performed and follow any additional precautions in the protocol. Contact the responsible Principal Investigator to view the protocol information.
4. Plan experiments to minimize external exposure by reducing exposure time, using shielding and
increasing your distance from the radiation source. Reduce internal and external radiation dose by monitoring the worker and the work area after each use of radioactive material, then promptly cleaning up any contamination discovered. Use the smallest amount of radioisotope possible so as to minimize radiation dose and radioactive waste.
5. Keep an accurate inventory of radioactive material, including records of all receipts, transfers &
disposal. Perform and record regular lab surveys.
6. Provide for safe disposal of radioactive waste by following institutional Waste Handling & Disposal
Procedures. Avoid generating mixed waste (combinations of radioactive, biological, and chemical waste). Note lab that staff may not pour measurable quantities of radioactive material down the drain.
7. If there is a question regarding any aspect of the radiation safety program or radioactive material
VIII. LAB PRACTICES 1. Disposable gloves, lab coats, and safety glasses are the minimum PPE [Personal Protective
Equipment] required when handling radioactive material. Remove & discard potentially contaminated PPE prior to leaving the area where radioactive material is used.
2. Clearly outline radioactive material use areas with tape bearing the legend "radioactive". Cover
lab bench tops where radioactive material will be handled with plastic-backed absorbent paper; change this covering periodically and whenever it's contaminated. Alternatively cover benches with thick plastic sheeting (i.e., painter's drop cloth), periodically wipe it clean and replace it if torn.
3. Label each unattended radioactive material container with the radioactive symbol, isotope, activity,
and, except for waste, the ICN [inventory control number]. Place containers too small for such labels in larger labeled containers.
4. Handle radioactive solutions in trays large enough to contain the material in the event of a spill. 5. Never eat, drink, smoke, handle contact lenses, apply cosmetics, or take/apply medicine in the lab;
keep food, drinks, cosmetics, etc. out of the lab entirely. Do not pipette by mouth.
6. Never store [human] food and beverage in refrigerators/freezers used for storing radioisotopes. 7. Prevent skin contact with skin-absorbable solvents containing radioactive material. 8. Fume hoods and biological safety cabinets for use with non-airborne radioactive material must be
approved (through the protocol) and must be labeled "Caution Radioactive Material".
9. All volatile, gaseous, or aerosolized radioactive material must be used only in a properly operating
charcoal and/or HEPA filtered fume hood or Biological Safety Cabinet bearing a Caution Airborne Radioactivity hood label, unless otherwise specified in writing by the Radiation Safety Officer. In particular, radioactive iodination must be performed only in these specially designed fume hoods. The Radiation Safety Officer (through a protocol) must approve all such use.
10. Take special precautions when working with radioactive compounds that tend to become volatile
[e.g. 35S labeled amino acids, 125I - iodine tends to volatilize in acidic solutions]. These precautions may include: using the materials only within an approved fume hood, protecting the house vacuum system with primary and secondary vapor trapping devices, and covering active cell cultures with carbon-impregnating paper.
11. Use sealed containers and appropriate secondary containment to carry radioactive material
between rooms Notify Radiation Safety staff before taking any radioactive material off site.
The Minsk Times Thursday, December 13, 2012 Belorusskie Pesnyary ensemble conquers Kremlin audienceThis year, Pesnyary decided to remind the Russian public of its founder, Vladimir Mulyavin, giving a concert in his memory not just anywhere but at the illustrious Kremlin: a special honour! By Victoria Popova Mr. Misevich: Nothing Mr. Averin: Th Mr. Misevich: Our con- Belor
HYPERTENSION Definition and Classification Hypertension in adults is defined as systolic BP (SBP) of 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 90 mm Hg or greater or any level of blood pressure in patients taking antihypertensive medication. Starting at 115/75mm Hg, cardiovascular disease(CVD) risk doubles with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg throughout the blood pressure