Brain Scans, Genes Provide Addiction Clues
Bridget M. Kuehn
SCIENTISTSUSINGADVANCEDBRAIN cravingordesirethataddictedindi- dogenousdopamineandtheybindto noted the effect particularly in the ven- tral striatum, suggesting this region may pathways that make eating rewarding.
ture scenes (Volkow et al. J Neurosci.
soon be possible to use genetics or other CRAVING KEY
important role in reinforcing the useof addictive substances. Many studies Positron emission
tomography scans
reveal that low activity
levels in the cerebral

cortex, as measured by
metabolism of
radiolabeled glucose,
are positively
correlated (yellow

areas) with depression
in individuals who
have abused

(Arch Gen Psych.
2007 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, April 4, 2007-Vol 297, No. 13 1419
findings in patients participating in the ising results (George TP et al. Biol Psy- chiatry. 2003;53:136-143). Nine of 20 given placebo, and 6 of the patients tak- MOOD-BOOSTING CIGARETTES
entists are currently conducting a larger focused on the effects of nicotine, ciga- smoke (Khalil AA et al. Bioorg Med Chem.
and it also offers the benefit of less fre- MAO-inhibiting effects of terpene trans- trans-farnesol in the rat brain and in hu- treatments or neuroprotective agents.
cravings (Monterosso JR et al. Am J Ad- BOOSTING INHIBITION
dict. 2001;10:258-268). These find- netic basis for a patient's response to tural deficits that interfere with users' ability to control negative emotions.
tients are predisposed to respond to nal- levels in other organs, such as the heart, al. Nature. 1996;379:733-736, Fowler JS et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; DW et al. Neuropsychopharmacology.
with that of controls (London ED et al.
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:73-84).
ies of the Asp40 allele who were treated lism) in the cerebral cortex that was re- those with 2 copies of the Asn40 al- lose the ability to control their negative 1420 JAMA, April 4, 2007-Vol 297, No. 13 (Reprinted)
2007 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
abstaining. "It could be that they mis- A Change of Heart Guidelines for Women
INAPHILOSOPHICALSHIFT,NEWGUIDE- showingthatonly55%knewcardiovas- physicalactivity,improvednutrition, epidemic of risk factors at bay is an ag- line February 20 by Circulation, empha- size lifetime heart disease risk for women sicians, need to tell patients that the ac- tions they take in their 20s, 30s, and 40s will have a huge effect on their need for stress lifestyle goals and clarify the use of aspirin for risk reduction. The guide- lines emphatically reject various vita-min supplements and hormone therapy THE SKINNY
sicians that heart disease is the leading dents were aware of the healthy levels for risk factors (Mosca L et al. Circulation. "The big shift in the rationale for these selves at low risk for heart disease, and physicians also think they're at low risk," women remain unaware of these risks.
2007 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
(Reprinted) JAMA, April 4, 2007-Vol 297, No. 13 1421
Erick H. Turner, MD
5. Ju¨ni P, Reichenbach S, Egger M. COX 2 inhibitors, traditional NSAIDs, and the
heart. BMJ. 2005;330(7504):1342-1343.
6. Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives, 109th Con-
Mental Health & Neurosciences Division
gress, 1st Session. A Citizen's Guide on Using the Freedom of Information Act Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center
and the Privacy Act of 1974 to Request Government Records [Report 109-226].
Portland, Oregon
Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office;2005.
Financial Disclosure: Dr Turner reported having been a reviewer of psychotropic
This letter was shown to Dr Psaty, who declined to reply on behalf of the au- drugs at the US Food and Drug Administration, and having been on the speaker bureaus of Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
1. Psaty BM, Charo RA. FDA responds to Institute of Medicine drug safety rec-
ommendations-in part. JAMA. 2007;297(17):1917-1920.
2. Turner EH. A taxpayer-funded clinical trials registry and results database. PLoS
Med. 2004;1(3):e60.
3. The future of drug safety: promoting and protecting the health of the public:
Incorrect Text: In the Medical News & Perspectives article entitled "Brain Scans,
FDA's response to the Institute of Medicine's 2006 report. US Food and Drug Ad- Genes Provide Addiction Clues" published in the April 4, 2007, issue of JAMA (2007; ministration Web site. Ac- 297[13]:1419-1421) the region of the brain where dopamine levels increased in response to visual cues that trigger drug craving was incorrectly identified. On page 4. Drugs@FDA, FDA Approved Drug Products. US Food and Drug Administra-
1419, the second and final sentences of the fifth paragraph under the subheading tion, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Web site. http://www.accessdata Craving Key should have noted increases in dopamine levels occur in the dorsal Accessed July 13, 2007.
(not ventral) striatum in response to drug and food cues.
Whatever practical people may say, this world is, af-ter all, absolutely governed by ideas, and very oftenby the wildest and most hypothetical ideas.
864 JAMA, August 22/29, 2007-Vol 298, No. 8 (Reprinted)
2007 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


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Tausche 7 Jahre Leben gegen eine Hand voll Risiko! Frauen- und Männergesundheit – welche Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten gibt es? Diesem Thema stellten sich Prof. Dr. Éva Rásky, Institut für Sozialmedizin und Dr. Rainer Possert , Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Liebenau , bei einer Veranstaltung, die das SMZ am 10. 3. 2003 in Kooperation mit dem Frauengesundheitszentrum durchführte.

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