• Good resource allocation schemes are needed to fully utilize the computing capacity of the DS • Distributed scheduler is a resource management • It focuses on judiciously and transparently redistributing the load of the system among the computers • Target is to maximize the overall performance of the • A locally distributed system consists of a collection of autonomous computers connected by a local area communication network • Users submit tasks at their host computers for processing• Load distributed is required in such environment because of random arrival of tasks and their random CPU service time • There is a possibility that several computers are heavily loaded and others are idle of lightly loaded • If the load is heavier on some systems or if some processors execute tasks at a slower rate than others, this situation will occur often • Consider a system of N identical and independent • Identical means that all servers have the same task • Let ? be the utilization of each server, than P=1- ?, • If the ?=0.6, it means that P=0.4,• If the systems have different load than load can be transferred from highly loaded systems to lightly load systems to increase the performance - Resource queue lengths and particularly the CPU queue - Measuring the CPU queue length is fairly simple and - CPU queue length does not always tell the correct situation as the jobs may differ in types - Another load measuring criterion is the processor - Requires a background process that monitors CPU utilization continuously and imposes more overhead - Used in most of the load balancing algorithms • Basic function is to transfer load from heavily loaded systems to idle or lightly loaded systems • These algorithms can be classified as : • decisions are hard-wired in the algorithm using a prior knowledge • use system state information to make load distributing decisions • special case of dynamic algorithms in that they adapt their activities by dynamically changing the parameters of the algorithm to suit the changing system state - Load sharing algorithms strive to reduce the possibility for a system to go to a state in which it lies idle while at the same time tasks contend service at another, by transferring tasks to lightly loaded nodes - Load balancing algorithms try to equalize loads at al - Because a load balancing algorithm transfers tasks at higher rate than a load sharing algorithm, the higher overhead incurred by the load balancing algorithm may outweigh this potential performance improvement • Preemptive vs. Non-preemptive transfer - Preemptive task transfers involve the transfer of a task - Non-preemptive task transfers involve the transfer of the tasks that have not begun execution and hence do not require the transfer of the task's state - Preemptive transfer is an expensive operation as the collection of a task's state can be difficult - What does a task's state consist of?- Non-preemptive task transfers are also referred to as task - determines whether a node is in a suitable state to participate in a - requires information on the local nodes' state to make decisions - determines which task should be transferred - determines to which node a task selected for transfer should be - requires information on the states of remote nodes to make - responsible for triggering the collection of system state information- Three types are: Demand-Driven, Periodic, State-Change-Driven • A system is termed as unstable if the CPU queues grow without bound when the long term arrival rate of work to a system is greater than the rate at which the system can perform work.
• If an algorithm can perform fruitless actions indefinitely with finite probability, the algorithm is said to be unstable. • Activity is initiated by an overloaded node (sender)• A task is sent to an underloaded node (receiver) • A node is identified as a sender if a new task originating at the node makes the queue length exceed a threshold T.
• Only new arrived tasks are considered for transfer • Random: dynamic location policy, no prior information exchange• Threshold: polling a node (selected at random) to find a receiver• Shortest: a group of nodes are polled to determine their queue • Location policies adopted cause system instability at high loads Yes QueueLength at "I"

• Initiated from an underloaded node (receiver) to obtain a task from an overloaded node (sender) • A node selected at random is polled to determine if transferring a task from it would place its queue length below the threshold level, if not, the polled node transfers a task.
• Do not cause system instability in high system load, however, in • Most transfers are preemptive and therefore expensive Yes QueueLength at "I"
Task Departure at "j"
• Both senders and receivers search for receiver and senders, respectively, for task transfer.
• Thresholds are equidistant from the node's estimate of the • Sender-initiated component: Timeout messages TooHigh, TooLow, Accept, AwaitingTask, ChangeAverage • Receiver-initiated component: Timeout messages TooLow, LooHigh, Accept, AwaitingTask, ChangeAverage • Similar to both the earlier algorithms • A demand-driven type but the acceptable range can be increased/decreased by each node individually.
• A Stable Symmetrically Initiated Algorithm - Utilizes the information gathered during polling to classify the nodes in the system as either Sender, Receiver or OK.
- The knowledge concerning the state of nodes is maintained by a data structure at each node, comprised of a senders list, a receivers list, and an OK list.
- Initially, each node assumes that every other node is a receiver.
- Transfer Policy • Triggers when a new task originates or when a task departs.
• Makes use of two threshold values, i.e. Lower (LT) and Upper (UT) • Sender-initiated component: Polls the node at the head of receiver's list• Receiver-initiated component: Polling in three order - Head-Tail (senders list), Tail-Head (OK list), Tail-Head (receivers list) - Selection Policy: Newly arrived task (SI), other approached (RI)- Information Policy: A demand-driven type • Receiver-initiated task transfers can improve system performance at high system loads.
• Receiver-initiated transfers require - Task Placement refers to the transfer of a task that is yet to begin execution to a new location and start its execution there.
- Task Migration refers to that transfer of a task that has already begun execution to a new location and continuing its execution there.
• The transfer of the task's state including information e.g. registers, stack, ready/blocked, virtual memory address space, file descriptors, buffered messages etc. to the new machine.
• The task is frozen at some point during the transfer so that the state does not change further.
• The task is installed at the new machine and is put in the ready queue so that it can continue executing.
- To support remote execution, obtaining and transferring the state, and Residual Dependencies
- Refers to the amount of resources a former host of a preempted or migrated task continues to dedicate to service requests from the migrated task.
• Attempts to reduce the freezing time of a migrating task by precopying the state.
• The bulk of the task state is copied to the new host• It increases the number of messages that are sent to new host • Makes use of the location-transparent file access mechanism provided by its file • All the modified pages of the migrating task are swapped to file server • Reduction in migration is achieved by using a feature called Copy-on-Reference• The entire virtual memory address space is not copied to the new host • Services that are provided to user processes irrespective of the location of the processes and services.
• In distributed systems, it is essential that the location • Location transparency in principle requires that names (e.g. process names, file names) be independent of their location (i.e. host names).
• Any operation (such as signaling) or communication that was possible before the migration of a task should be possible after its migration • Example - SPRITE - Location Transparency Mechanisms - A location-transparent distributed file system is provided- The entire state of the migrating task is made available at the new host, and therefore, any kernel calls made will be local at new host - Location-dependent information such as host of a task is maintained • Issues involved in Migration Mechanisms - Decision whether to separate the policy-making modules • It has implications for both performance and the ease of • The separation of policy and mechanism modules simplifies the - Decision to where the policy and mechanisms should • The migration mechanism may best fit inside the kernel• Policy modules decide whether a task transfer should occur, this - Interplay between the task migration mechanism and • The mechanisms can be designed to be independent of one another so that if one mechanism's protocol changes, the other'sneed not • Comparing the performance of task migration mechanisms implemented in different systems is a difficult task, because of the different, • SPRITE consists of a collection of SPARCSTATION 1• CHARLOTTE consists of VAX/11-750 machines - Operating systems- IPC mechanism- File systems- Policy mechanisms

Source: http://www.ssuet.edu.pk/courses/ce403/AllSec/Lectures/Lecture-8.pdf


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