Hazard symbols
Hazard statements (H phrases)
Precautionary statements (P phrases)
Pictograms and
H phrases
Hazard associated to the pictogram
If medical advice is needed, have product container or label Caution to consider when using the substance
Hazard: Pressurised and/ or refrigerated gas which can explode when heated. Can cause cryogenic
H202 Explosive; severe projection hazard H203 Explosive; fire, blast or projection hazard P201 Obtain special instructions before use. Caution: Store in adapted containers, in a ventilated area and keep away from heat.
Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read Examples: Liquid nitrogen, butane.
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. – No Hazard: Substances which can explode under specific conditions.
Caution: Avoid shocks, frictions, sparks and heat.
P211 Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source. Examples: Benzoyl peroxide, picric acid.
P220 Keep/Store away from clothing/./combustible materials. P221 Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles/. Hazard: Gives rise to highly exothermic reactions when in contact with other substances, particularly
Keep away from any possible contact with water, because of Caution: Keep away from flammable, combustible and spontaneously combustible materials.
H224 Extremely flammable liquid and vapour P223 violent reaction and possible flash fire. Examples: Lithium peroxide, potassium nitrate, sodium chlorate.
Hazard: (very) flammable substances or substances generating flammable gases.
Category 1:
-chemicals with flash point (FP) < 23°C and a boiling point (BP)≤ 35°C. Caution: Store in a ventilated area and avoid any contact with igniting sources and heat.
Examples: Hydrogen, acetylene, butane, phosphine, diethyl ether.
H241 Heating may cause a fire or explosion -chemicals flammable when in contact with air at ambient temperature and pressure. P240 Ground/bond container and receiving equipment. Caution: Avoid contact with air.
H250 Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air Examples: tert-Butyllithium (solution), Raney nickel, magnesium.
electrical/ventilating/lighting/./equipment. -chemicals generating dangerous quantities of very flammable gases when in contact with H252 Self-heating in large quantities; may catch fire P243 Take precautionary measures against static discharge. Caution: Avoid contact with air and moisture.
In contact with water releases flammable gases which may P244 Keep reduction valves free from grease and oil. Examples: Metallic sodium, sodium hydride.
Category 2:
H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas P250 Do not subject to grinding/shock/…/friction. -chemicals with FP < 23°C and BP > 35°C. H270 May cause or intensify fire; oxidizer P251 Pressurized container: Do not pierce or burn, even after use. Caution: Store in a ventilated area and keep away from flames, heat and sparks.
H271 May cause fire or explosion; strong oxidizer P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Examples: Pentane, acetone, ethanol, acetonitrile.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Category 3:
H280 Contains gas under pressure; may explode if heated P262 Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Contains refrigerated gas; may cause cryogenic burns or Caution: Store in a ventilated area and keep away from flames, heat and sparks.
P263 Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing. Examples: Acetic acid, white spirit.
Hazard: Substances corroding metals.
P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Caution: Store in a non-metallic container and keep away from moisture.
P271 Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Examples: Strong acids.
Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the and/ or Substances corroding living tissues. Caution: Work with collective and personal protective equipment. Wash thoroughly when in contact
with the chemical and contact a physician for medical advice. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye Examples: Acids pH<2 or bases pH>11.5
H304 May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways Hazard: Substances causing death or chronic toxicity by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact.
H305 May be harmful if swallowed and enters airways P281 Use personal protective equipment as required. Caution: Work with collective and personal protective equipment. Call a poison center or doctor/
Wear cold insulating gloves/face shield/eye protection. Examples: Osmium tetroxide, potassium cyanide, ethidium bromide.
P283 Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothing. H313 May be harmful in contact with skin P285 In case of inadequate ventilation wear respiratory protection. H314 Causes severe skin burns and eye damage Hazard: Substances which can cause death or chronic toxicity by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact
Caution: Work with protective cloths, gloves in a ventilated area.
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction Examples: Iodine, toluene, hexane, chloroform.
Hazard: Continuous or repeated exposure to the chemical may cause respiratory sensitization, target
organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproductive toxicity (CMR) and death. Caution: Work with collective and personal protective equipment. Respect established exposure
P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Examples: Benzene, benzoyl chloride.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Category 1a: CMR toxicity on human beings. May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel Hazard: Would or may present an immediate or delayed danger for one or more components of the
P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell. environment if the chemical was to enter the environment. May cause genetic defects (state route of exposure if it is Caution: Prevent environmental contamination.
H340 conclusively proven that no other routes of exposure cause P315 Get immediate medical advice/attention. Examples: Ammonium hydroxide (solution), chlorobenzene, hydroxylamine
Suspected of causing genetic defects (state route of H341 exposure if it is conclusively proven that no other routes of P320 Specific treatment is urgent (see . on this label). Faculté des Sciences de Base Occupational Safety and Health service February 2012EPFL SB-SST /


Letters to the Editor The authors well present that in vitro cytotoxicity by com-bination of chemotherapeutic agents with anti-malaria drugsagainst malignant glioma cell lines. The cell viability was foundto be markedly decreased when hydroxychloroquine was addedon malignant glioma cell lines. The possible mechanism in theirexperiments is to bind P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and competiti-To the

Nosocomial infection a worldwide problem

Infection Control B.V Vlierberg 7 3755 BS Eemnes Tel: +31 (35) 53 80 800 Fax: +31 (35) 53 80 280 Email: What it is, what it does and how to treat 1. Nosocomial Infections, a Worldwide Problem 1.1 What are Nosocomial Infections Nosocomial means “hospital acquired.” So, infections acquired during a hospital stay are called nosocomial infectio

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