Pediatric Self-Study Test
1) The calculated BSA blood flow rate for a newborn is ________ L/min/m2.
2) Arterial line pressures in pediatric patients are usually ________ than adults and must be closely
3) True or False? The pediatric patient is more sensitive to volume shifts and hypovolemic shock is
more likely than in adult perfusion? ________
4) Excessively high blood flow rates should be avoided during pediatric perfusion so that ________
and ______ _________ (2 words) may be avoided.
5) The first possibility to consider in hypotension on bypass is that it may be the result of
6) The first measure to correct hypotension upon initiation of bypass should be to _________
7) The first drug of choice in treating hypotension in the pediatric patient on bypass is:
a. Regitine b. Levophed c. Neosynephrine d. Epinephrine
8) True or False? In the pediatric patient, the use of inhalant anesthesia during bypass is extremely
9) Inhalation anesthesia during pediatric bypass is best discontinued during ___________, about
the time that the ______ _______ (2 words) is removed.
10) Vasomotor hypertensive responses yield well to _________ and _________ during pediatric
11) The normal range of base excess in pediatric bypass is ______ to ______.
12) If increasing blood flow is not effective in reducing base deficit during pediatric bypass, buffering
with ______ _________ (2 words) should commence.
13) Sudden loss of circulating volume is usually _________ in nature.
14) If volume loss is caused solely by intraoperative bleeding , the arterial blood pressure will:
a. Fall rapidly b. Remain stable c. Neither of the above.
15) Fluid additions in pediatric bypass must be carefully regulated so that the hematocrit does not
16) A hematocrit of 25-29% offers an optimal choice of ________ and minimized _______
________ ________ (3 words) during pediatric bypass.
17) Lasix should be given at a dosage of ________ mg/kg in pediatric patients.
18) True or False? The pediatric patient must usually be weaned very slowly from bypass. _______.
19) Atrial septal defects account for approximately ______ % of all congenital cardiac abnormalities.
20) A child's blood pressure is usually _______ (higher/lower/same) as an adult's blood pressure.
21) The most common form of atrial septal defect is the _________ ________ (2 words) variety.
22) True or False? Sinus venosus ASD is usually repaired using a direct suture method. ________
23) True or False? Corrective surgery for secundum ASD carries a high mortality. _________
24) The most common symptom in a VSD is _________.
25) True or False? The typical patient with anomalous pulmonary venous return (drainage) is
acyanotic and demonstrates little if any congestive heart failure. ________.
26) True or False? The use of prosthetic heart valves in pediatric heart surgery presents no long
term problems for the patient. _________.
27) True or False? In tricuspid atresia sudden closure of an associated patent ductus arteriosus
(PDA) will bring about a rapid decline in the patient's status. _______
28) True or False? A large percentage of patients with transposition of the great arteries will benefit
from a Rashkind balloon septostomy. _________
29) In the Rastelli Procedure for transposition, a valved external conduit is used to provide from
from the ______ _______ (2 words) to the ________ ________.
30) The most common symptom in all forms of the atrioventricular canal defect is _________
31) In approximately 80% of single ventricle cases a unique cardiac anatomical feature is present.
Name this anatomical anomaly. _______ _______ _________ _________ (4 words)
32) In double outlet ventricle, both the _______ and the ______ ________ (2 words) arise from one
33) In double outlet ventricle, with an associated VSD and little or no pulmonary stenosis,
pulmonary venous return will be directed to the _________.
34) True or False? The use of an interventricular tunnel repair is not advisable in nearly all cases of
double outlet right ventricle. ________.
35) True or False? Total correction of aortopulmonary septal defect only rarely requires the use of
36) In the modified Fontan Procedure employed in the treatment of single ventricle, a conduit made
of ________ (material) is constructed and anastomosed to the _______ _______ _______ and the __________ __________. (Name the areas of the heart involved).
37) Briefly describe the configuration of the cardiac, systemic and pulmonary arterial structure in
truncus arteriosus. You need not be concerned with individual types of this disorder at this time. You may draw a diagram if you like. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
38) A particularly important consideration in the perfusion of a patient with truncus arteriosus
relates to the position of the __________ cannula. Briefly state why. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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