Almond DY, King RF, Burkinshaw L, Laughland A, McMahon MJ. 1987. Potassium depletion in surgical patients: intracellular cation deficiency is independent of loss of body protein. Clin Nutr 6:45-50.
Alverdy JC. 1990. Effect of glutamine-supplemented diets on immunology of the gut. JPEN 14(suppl.):109S-113S.
Amadori D, Bonaguri C, Volpi A, Nanni O, Zoli W, Lundi N. 1993. Cell kinetics and prognosis in gastric cancer. Cancer 71:1-4.
Ambrus JL, Ambrus CM, Mink IB. 1975. Causes of death in cancer patients. J Med 6:61-64.
American College of Physicians. 1989. Parenteral nutrition in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Ann Intern Med 110:734-736.
Anti M, Marra G, Armelao F, et al. 1992. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on rectal mucosal cell proliferation in subjects at risk for colon cancer. Gastroenterology 103:883-891.
Attal M, Huguet F, Rubie H, et al. 1993. Prevention of regimen-related toxicities after bone marrow transplantation by pentoxifylline: a prospective, randomized trial. Blood 82:732-736.
Austgen TR, Dudrick PS, Sitren HS, et al. 1992. The effects of glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition on tumor growth and host tissues. Ann Surg 215:107-113.
Axelrod L, Halter JB, Cooper DS, et al. 1983. Hormone levels and fuel flow in patients with weight loss and lung cancer. Evidence for excessive metabolic expenditure and for an adaptive response mediated by a reduced level of 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine. Metabolism 32:924-937.
Azcona C, Castro L, Crespo E, et al. 1996. Megestrol acetate therapy for anorexia and weight loss in children with malignant solid tumors. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 10:577-586.
Balkwill F, Burke F, Talbot D, et al. 1987. Evidence for tumour necrosis factor/cachectin production in cancer. Lancet ii: 1229-1232.
Balzola F, Palmo A, Protta F, Avagnina S et al. 1984. La terapia nutrizionale in pazienti portatori di neoplasia del capo colla in trattamento radiante. Parte prima: dati antropometrici. Riv Ital Nutr Parent Ent 3:30-54.
Baron PL, Lawrence W Jr., Chaw WMY, White FKH, Banks WL Jr. 1986. Effects of parenteral nutrition on cell-cycle kinetics of head and neck cancer. Arch Surg 121:1282-1286.
Bartlett DL, Stein TP, Torosian MH. 1995a. Effect of growth hormone and protein intake on tumor growth and host cachexia. Surgery 17:260-267.
Bartlett DL, Charland S, Torosian MH. 1995b. Effect of glutamine on tumor and host growth. Ann Surg Oncol 2:71-76.
Bartsch HH, Pfizenmaier K, Schroeer M, et al. 1989. Intralesional application of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha induces local tumor regressions in patients with advanced malignancies. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 25:287-291.
Bashir Y, Graham TR, Torrance A, Gibson GJ, Corris PA. 1990. Nutritional state of patients with lung cancer undergoing thoracotomy. Thorax 45:183-190.
Beck SA, Groundwater P, Barton C, et al. 1990. Alterations in serum lipolytic activity of cancer patients with response to therapy. Br J Cancer 62:822-825.
Belghiti J, Longonnet F, Bourstyn E, Feketé F. 1983. Surgical implications of malnutrition and immunodeficiency in patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus. Br J Surg 70:339-341.
Belizario J, Katz M, Chenker E, Raw I. 1993. Bioactivity of skeletal muscle proteolysis inducing factors in the plasma proteins from cancer patients with weight loss. Br J Cancer 63:705 -710.
Bell JW, Jesseph JE, Leighton RS. 1964. Spontaneous regression of bronchogenic carcinoma with five year survival. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 48:984-990.
Bennegard K, Eden E, Ekman L, Scherstén T, Lundholm K. 1983. Metabolic response of whole body and peripheral tissues to enteral nutrition in weight-losing cancer patients. Gastroenterology 85:92-99.
Bennegard K, Lindmark L, Eden E, et al. 1984. Flux of amino acids across the leg in weight-losing cancer patients. Cancer Res 44:386-393.
Bernstein IL, Bernstein ID. 1981. Learned food aversions and cancer anorexia. Cancer Treat Rep 65 (suppl. 5):43-47.
Bianco JA, Appelbaum FR, Nemunaitis J, et al. 1991. Phase I-II trial of pentoxifylline for the prevention of transplant-related toxicities following bone marrow transplantation. Blood 78:1205-1211.
Bode BP, Kaminski M, Souba WW, Li AP. 1995. Glutamine transport in isolated human hepatocytes and transformed liver cells. Hepatology 21:511-520.
Bolker N. 1953. Nitrogen balance in malignant disease. Am J Roentgen 69:839-848.
Bonadonna G, Valagussa P, Santoro A. 1986. Alternating noncross-resistant combination chemotherapy or MOPP in stage IV Hodgkin’s disease: a report of 8-year results. Ann Int Med 104:739-746.
Boothby WM, Sandiford I. 1922. Summary of the basal metabolism data on 8,614 subjects and special reference to the normal standards for the estimation of the basal metabolic rate. J Biol Chem 54:783-803.
Bozzetti F. 1979. Determination of the caloric requirements of patients with cancer. Surg Gynecol Obstet 149:667-670.
Bozzetti F, Pagnoni A, Del Vecchio M. 1980. Excessive caloric expenditure as a cause of malnutrition in patients with cancer. Surg Gynecol Obstet 150:229-234.
Bozzetti F, Migliavacca S, Scotti A, Bonalumi MG, Scarpa D, Baticci F, Ammatuna M, Pupa A, Terno G, Sequeira C, Masserini C, Emanuelli H. 1982. Impact of cancer, type, site, stage and treatment on the nutritional status of patients. Ann Surg 196:170-179.
Bozzetti F, Migliavacca S, Gallus G, et al. 1985. Nutritional markers as prognostic indicators of postoperative sepsis in cancer patients. JPEN 9:464-470.
Bozzetti F, Ammatuna M, Migliavacca S, Bonalumi MG, Facchetti G, Pupa A, Terno G. 1987. Total parenteral nutrition prevents further nutritional deterioration in patients with cancer cachexia. Ann Surg 205:138-143.
Bozzetti F, Agradi E, Ravera E. 1989a. Anorexia in cancer patients: prevalence and impact on the nutritional status. Clin Nutr 8:35-43.
Bozzetti F. 1989b. Effects of artificial nutrition on the nutritional status of cancer patients. J Parent Ent Nutr 13:406-420.
Bozzetti F. 1992. Nutritional support in adult cancer patients. Clin Nutr 11:167-179.
Bozzetti F, Regalia E, Barbieri A, Facchetti G, Bombardieri E, Montalto F, Cozzaglio L, Gennari L. 1993. Does portal nutrition benefit liver protein synthesis? J Parent Ent Nutr 17:20-24.
Bozzetti F, Cozzaglio L, Villa ML, Ferrario E, Trabattoni D. 1995a. Restorative effect of total parenteral nutrition on natural killer cell activity in malnourished cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 12:2023-2027.
Bozzetti F, Boracchi P, Costa A, Cozzaglio L, Battista A, Giori A, LaMonica A. 1995b. Relationship between nutritional status and tumor growth in humans. Tumori 81:1-6.
Bozzetti F, Cozzaglio L, Gavazzi C, Brandi S, Bonfanti G, Lattarulo M, Gennari L. 1996. Total nutritional manipulation in humans: report of a cancer patient. Clin Nutr 15:207-209.
Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, Cappuzzo F, Carnaghi C, Buzzoni R, DiBartolomeo M, Baietta E. 1997. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a double-blind randomized study. Nutrition 13:748-751.
Braga M, Cristallo M, Spiegel P, Staudacher C, et al. 1983. Valutazione dello stato nutrizionale e alimentazione enterale nel paziente portatore di neoplasia del tubo digerente. Riv Ital Nutr Parent Ent 2:30-40.
Brand K, Fekl W, Von Hintzenstern J, et al. 1989. Metabolism of glutamine in lymphocytes. Metabolism 38(suppl.):29-33.
Brooks SL, Neville AM, Rothwell NH, et al. 1981. Sympathetic activation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in cachexia. Bioscience Reports 1:509-517.
Bruera E, Roca E, Cedaro L, et al. 1985. Action of oral methylprednisolone in terminal cancer patients: a prospective randomized double-blind study. Cancer Treat Rep 69:751-754.
Bruera E, Macmillan K, Kuehn N, et al. 1990. A controlled trial of megestrol acetate on appetite, caloric intake, nutritional status, and other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer 66:1279-1282.
Bruera E. 1992. Clinical management of anorexia and cachexia in patients with advanced cancer. Oncology 49 (suppl. 2):35-42.
Burke M, Bryson EI, Kark AE. 1980. Dietary intakes, resting metabolic rates, and body composition in benign and malignant gastrointestinal disease. Br Med J 1:211-215.
Burke D, Alverdy JC, Aoys E, et al. 1989. Glutamine-supplemented TPN improves gut-immune function. Arch Surg 124:1396-1399.
Burt ME, Norton JA, Brennan M. 1980. The human tumor-bearing limb: an ex vivo model. Surgery 87:128-132.
Burt ME, Gorschboth CM, Brennan MF. 1982. A controlled, prospective, randomized trial comparing the metabolic effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition in the cancer patient. Cancer 49:1092-1105.
Burt ME, Aoki TT, Gorschboth CM, Brennan MF. 1983a. Peripheral tissue metabolism in cancer-bearing man. Ann Surg 198:685-691.
Burt ME, Stein TP, Brennan MF. 1983b. A controlled, randomized trial evaluating the effects of enteral and parenteral nutrition on protein metabolism in cancer-bearing man. J Surg Res 34:303-314.
Burt ME, Brennan MF. 1984. Nutritional support of the patient with esophageal cancer. Semin Oncol 11:127-135.
Cangiano C, Laviano A, Preziosa I, et al. 1994. Effects of oral branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) administration in the treatment of cancer anorexia (abstract). Clin Res 2:129A.
Cascino A, Cangiano C, Ceci F, et al. 1988. Plasma amino acids in human cancer. Individual role of tumor, malnutrition and glucose tolerance. Clin Nutr 7:213-218.
Cassell P, Robinson JO. 1976. Cancer of the stomach: a review of 854 patients. Br J Surg 63:603-607.
Cederbaum AI, Rubin E. 1976. Fatty acid oxidation, substrate shuttles, and activity of the citric acid cycle in hepatocellular carcinomas of varying differentiation. Cancer Res 36:2980-2987.
Chapman HA, Jr., Hibb JB, Jr. 1977. Modulation of macrophage tumoricidal capability by components of normal serum: a central role for lipid. Science 197:282-285.
Chen MK, Sallourm RM, Austgen TR, et al. 1991. Tumor regulation of hepatic glutamine metabolism. JPEN 15:159-164.
Chen MK, Espat NJ, Bland KI, et al. 1993. Influence of progressive tumor growth on glutamine metabolism in skeletal muscle and kidney. Ann Surg 217:655-667.
Chlebowski RT, Heber D, Richardson B, et al. 1984. Influence of hydrazine sulfate on abnormal carbohydrate metabolism in cancer patients with weight loss. Cancer Res 44:857-861.
Chlebowski RT, Herrold J, Ali I, et al. 1986. Influence of nandrolone decanoate on weight loss in advanced lung cancer. Cancer 58:183-186.
Chute C, Greenberg R. 1985. Presenting conditions of 1539 population-based lung cancer patients by cell type and stage in New Hampshire and Vermont. Cancer 56: 2107-2111.
Clamon GH, Gardner L, Pee D, et al. 1985a. The effect of intravenous hyperalimentation on the dietary intake of patients with small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial. Cancer 55:1572-1578.
Clamon GH, Feld R, Evans WK, et al. 1985b. Effect of adjuvant central IV hyperalimentation on the survival and response to treatment of patients with small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial. Cancer Treat Rep 69:167-177.
Cohn SH, Vartsky D, Vaswani AN, et al. 1982. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support. Nutr Cancer 4:107-119.
Conversano L, Muscaritoli M, Petti MC, et al. 1995. Effects of oral glutamine on high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT)-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in acute leukemia patients: a pilot study. Clin Nutr 14:6 (abstract).
Corti T, Salis C, Cazzaniga R, Fossa D. 1987. Nutrizione enterale a domicilio. Tre anni di esperienza. Riv It Nutr Parent Enter 5:189-192.
Cozzaglio L, Bozzetti F, Bidoli P, Bonfanti G, Riva L, Strisciuglio A. 1992. Nutrizione enterale durante chemioradioterpia nel carcinoma esofageo. RINPE 10:37-42.
Cozzaglio L, Balzola F, Cosentino F, Decicco M, Fellagara P, Gaggiotti G, Gallitelli L, Giacosa A, Orban A, Fadda M, Gavazzi C, Pirovano F, Bozzetti F. 1997. Outcome of cancer patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. JPEN 21:339-342.
Cristallo M, Braga M, Villa E, Baccari P, Di Carlo V. 1984. Nutrizione enterale palliativa nel trattamento della malnutrizione del paziente neoplastico. Riv Ital Nutr Parent Ent 3:19-30.
Daly JM, Copeland EM, Dudrick SJ, Delaney JM. 1980. Nutritional repletion of malnourished tumor-bearing and nontumor-bearing rats: effects on body weight, liver, muscle and tumor. J Surg Res 28:507-518.
Daly JM, Massar E, Giacco G, et al. 1982. Parenteral nutrition in esophageal cancer patients. Ann Surg 196:203-208.
Daly JM, Hearne B, Dunaj J, et al. 1984. Nutritional rehabilitation in patients with advanced head and neck cancer receiving radiation therapy. Am J Surg 148:514-520.
Daly JM, Bonau R, Stofberg P, et al. 1987. Immediate postoperative jejunostomy feeding: clinical and metabolic results in a prospective trial. Am J Surg 153:198-206.
DeCicco M, Panarello G, Fantin D, et al. 1993. Parenteral nutrition in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: effects on toxicity and nutritional status. JPEN 17:513-518.
Dempsey DT, Feurer ID, Crosby LO, Knox LS, Buzby GP, Mullen JL. 1984. Energy expenditure in malnourished gastrointestinal cancer patients. Cancer 53: 1265-1273.
DeWys WD and Walters K. 1975. Abnormalities of taste sensation in cancer patients. Cancer 36:1888-1896.
DeWys WD, Begg C, Lavin PT, et al. 1980. Prognostic effect of weight loss prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Am J Med 69:491-497.
DeWys WD, Begg C, Band P, et al. 1981. The impact of malnutrition on treatment results in breast cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 65:87-91.
Dezube BJ, Sherman JL, Fridovich-Keil JL, Allen-Ryan J, Pardee AB. 1993. Down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor expression by pentoxifylline in cancer patients: a pilot study. Cancer Immunol Immunother 36:57-60.
Dionigi P, Jemos V, Cebrelli T, Ferrari A, Beritti F, Mazzini G. 1991. Pre-operative nutritional support and tumour cell kinetics in malnourished patients with gastric cancer. Clin Nutr 10(suppl.):77-84.
Donaldson SS, Wesley MA, DeWys W, et al. 1981. A study of the nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients. Am J Diseases of Children. 135:1107-1112.
Douglass HO Jr., Milliron S, Nava H et al. 1978. Elemental diets as an adjuvant for patients with locally advanced gastrointestinal cancer receiving radiation therapy: a prospectively randomized study. JPEN 2:682-686.
Dresler CM, Jeevanandam M, Brennan MF. 1987. Metabolic efficacy of enteral feeding in malnourished cancer and noncancer patients. Metabolism 36:82-88.
Drott C, Svaninger G, Lundholm K. 1988a. Increased urinary excretion of cortisol and catecholamines in malnourished cancer patients. Ann Surg 208:645-650.
Drott C, Unsgaard B, Scherstèn T, Lundholm K. 1988b. Total parenteral nutrition as an adjuvant to patients undergoing chemotherapy for testicular carcinoma: protection of body composition – a randomized, prospective study. Surgery 103:499-506.
Dulloo AG. 1997. Regulation of body composition during weight recovery: integrating the control of energy partitioning and thermogenesis. Clin Nutr 16:25-35.
Dworzak F, Ferrari P, Gavazzi C, Maiorana C, Bozzetti F. 1998. Effects of cachexia due to cancer on whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover. Cancer 82:42-48.
Eagle H. 1935. Nutritional needs of mammalian cells in tissue culture. Science 122:501-504.
Earl S, Wood D, Gardner MLG. 1995. The effects of elemental diets and glutamine supplementation on intestinal absorptive function. Clin Nutr 14:134 (abstract).
Edén E, Ekman L, Bennegård K, Lindmark L, Lundholm K. 1984. Whole-body tyrosine flux in relation to energy expenditure in weight-losing cancer patients. Metabolism 33:1020-1027.
Edsall DL. 1905. Case of acute leukaemia. Am J M Sc 130:589-600.
Edstrom S, Westin T, Delle V, Lundholm K. 1989. Cell cycle distribution and ornithine decarboxylase activity in head and neck cancer in response to enteral nutrition. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 25:227-232.
Elia M. 1991. Effect of starvation and very low calorie diets on protein-energy interrelationships in lean and obese subjects. In: Protein-Energy Interactions, NS Scrimshaw, B Schurch, editors, Lausanne, Switzerland, IDECG, pp. 249-284.
Emery PW, Edwards RHT, Rennie MJ, Souhami RL, Halliday D. 1984. Protein synthesis in muscle measured in vivo in cachectic patients with cancer. Br Med J 289:584-586.
English WJ II, Suskind R, Damrongsak D, Kulapongs P, Olson RE. 1975. Can the growth of a neuroblastoma be influenced by a child’s nutritional state? Clin Pediat 14 (9):868-869.
Evans WK, Makuch R, Clamon GH. 1985. Limited impact of total parenteral nutrition on nutritional status during treatment for small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 45:3347-3353.
Falconer JS, Fearon KCH, Plester CE, et al. 1994. Cytokines, the acute-phase response and resting energy expenditure in cachectic patients with pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg 219:325-331.
Fan ST, Law WY, Wong KK, Chan WP. 1989. Pre-operative parenteral nutrition in patients with oesophageal cancer: a prospective, clinical trial. Clin Nutr 8:23-27.
Fan ST, Lo CM, Lai EC, Chu KM, Liu CL, Wong J. 1994. Perioperative nutritional support in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. N Eng J Med 331:1547-1552.
Fearon KCH, Borland W, Preston T, Tisdale MJ, Shenkin A, Calman KC. 1988. Cancer cachexia: influence of systemic ketosis on substrate levels and nitrogen metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 47:42-28.
Fearon KCH, McMillan DC, Preston T, et al. 1991. Elevated circulating interleukin-6 is associated with an acute phase response, but reduced fixed hepatic protein synthesis in patients with cancer. Ann Surg 213:26-31.
Fearon KCH, Falconer JS, Ross JA, et al. 1996. An open-label phase I/II dose escalation study of the treatment of pancreatic cancer using lithium γ-lineolenate. Anticancer Res 16:867-874.
Fein R, Kelsen DP, Geller N, et al. 1985. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal function: prognostic factors and results of therapy. Cancer 56: 2512-2518.
Feliu J, Gonzalez-Baron M, Berrocal A, et al. 1992. Usefulness of megestrol acetate in cancer cachexia and anorexia: a placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Oncol 15:436-440.
Fischer JE, Chance WT. 1990. Total parenteral nutrition, glutamine, and tumor growth. JPEN 14(suppl.):86S-89S.
Forbes GB. 1987. Lean body mass-body fat interrelationships in humans. Nutr Rev 45:225-231.
Fox AD, Kripke SA, DePaula J, et al. 1988. Effect of a glutamine-supplemented enteral diet on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis. JPEN 12:325-331.
Frank JL, Lawrence W Jr., Banks WL Jr., McKinnon JG, Chan WM, Collins JM. 1992. Modulation of cell cycle kinetics in human cancer with total parenteral nutrition. Cancer 69:1858-1864.
Gail MH, Eagan RT, Feld R et al. 1984. Prognostic factors in patients with resected Stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a report from the lung cancer study group. Cancer 54:1802-1803.
Gavazzi C, Bozzetti F, Cozzaglio L, Costa A. 1996. Effect of TPN on tumor cell proliferation in patients with gastric cancer. Clin Nutr 15(suppl):23 (abstract).
Gebbia V, Testa A, Gebbia N. 1996. Prospective randomised trial of two dose levels of megestrol acetate in the management of anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with metastatic cancer. Br J Cancer 73:1576-1580.
Gelin J, Moldawer LL, Lonnroth C, Sherry B, Chizzonite R, Lundholm K. 1991. Role of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 for experimental tumor growth and the development of cancer cachexia. Cancer Res 51:415-421.
Gershanovich ML, Danova LA, Ivin BA, et al. 1982. Results of clinical study of antitumor action of hydrazine sulfate. Nutr Cancer 3:7-12.
Ghavimi F, Shils ME, Scott BF, et al. 1982. Comparison of morbidity in children requiring abdominal radiation and chemotherapy, with and without total parenteral nutrition. J Pediatr 101:530-537.
Gold J. 1968. Proposed treatment of cancer by inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Oncology 22:185-207.
Gold J. 1975. Use of hydrazine sulfate in terminal and preterminal cancer patients. Oncology 32:1-10.
Goldberg RM, Loprinzi CL, Mailliard JA, et al. 1995. Pentoxifylline for treatment of cancer treatment of cancer cachexia and cachexia? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 13: 2856-2859.
Goodwin WJ, Torres J. 1984. The value of the prognostic nutritional index in the management of patients with advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck Surg 6:932-938.
Grafe E. 1911. Die Steigerung des Stoffwechsels bei chronische Leukamie und ihre Ursachen. Deutsch Arch F Klin Med 102:406-430.
Gray G, Meguid M. 1990. Can total parenteral nutrition reverse hypoalbuminemia in oncology patients? Nutr 6:225-228.
Greschner M, Saeger HD, Barth H, Leweling H, Holm E. 1991. Balances of energy –yielding substrates across malignant gastric tumors in man. Clin Nutr 10:(suppl.)12 (abstract).
Grosvenor M, Bulcavage L, Chlebowski RT. 1989. Symptoms potentially influencing weight loss in a cancer population. Correlations with primary site, nutritional status, and chemotherapy administration. Cancer 63:330-334.
Gunderson AH. 1921. The basal metabolism in myelogenous leukemia and its relationship to the blood findings. Boston Med Surg J 185:785-787.
Haffejee AA, Angorn IB. 1977. Oral alimentation following intubation for esophageal cancer. Ann Surg 186:165-170.
Haffejee AA, Angorn IB. 1979. Nutritional status and nonspecific cellular and humoral immune-response in oesophageal carcinoma. Ann Surg 189:457-479.
Hagmüller E. 1992. Der Stoffwechsel von malignen Kolon-Tumoren beim Menschen. Medizinische Habilitationschrift, Heidelberg University, p. 89-91.
Hagmüller E, Kollmar HB, Günther HJ, Holm E, Trede M. 1995. Protein metabolism in human colon carcinomas: in vivo investigations using a modified tracer technique with L-[1-13C] leucine. Cancer Res 55:1160-1167.
Hansell DT, Davies JWL, Burns HJG. 1986a. The effects on resting energy expenditure of different of different tumor types. Cancer 58:1739-1744.
Hansell DT, Davies JWL, Shenkin A, Burns HJG. 1986b. Body fuel oxidation in cancer patients and controls. Clin Nutr 15(suppl):62.
Harvey KB, Moldawer LL, Bistrian BR, et al. 1981. Biological measures for the formulation of a hospital prognostic index. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2013-2022.
Hays DM, Merritt RM, White L, et al. 1983. Effect of total parenteral nutrition on marrow recovery during induction therapy or acute non-lymphocytic leukemia in childhood. Med Pediatr Oncol 11:134-140.
Hays ET. 1969. Serum lipids in human cancer. J Surg Res 57:95-100.
Heber D, Chlebowski RT, Ishibashi DE, Herrold JN, Block JB. 1982. Abnormalities in glucose and protein metabolism in non-cachectic lung cancer patients. Cancer Res 42:4815-4819.
Henry CJK, Rivers JPW, Payne PR. 1988. Protein and energy metabolism in starvation reconsidered. Eur J Clin Nutr 42:543-549.
Heslin MJ, Newman E, Wolf RF, Pisters PWT, Brennan MF. 1992. Effect of systemic hyperinsulinemia in cancer patients. Cancer Res 52: 3845-3850.
Heylen AM, Lybeer MB, Penninckx FM, Kerremans RP, Frost PG. 1987. Parenteral versus needle jejunostomy nutrition after total gastrectomy. Clin Nutr 6:131-136.
Hickey AJ, Toth BB, Lindquist SB. 1982. Effect of intravenous hyperalimentation and oral care on the development of oral stomatitis during cancer chemotherapy. J Prosth Dent 47:188-193.
Holm E, Hagmüller E, Staedt U, et al. 1995. Substrate balances across colonic carcinomas in humans. Cancer Res 55:1373-1378.
Holroyde CP, Gabuzda TG, Putnam RC, et al. 1975. Altered glucose metabolism in metastatic carcinoma. Cancer Res 35:3710-3714.
Holroyde CP and Reichard GA. 1981. Carbohydrate metabolism in cancer cachexia. Cancer Treat Rep 65(5):61-65.
Holroyde CP, Skutches CL, Boden G et al. 1984. Glucose metabolism in cachectic patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 44:5910-5913.
Holter AR, Fisher JE. 1977. The effects of perioperative hyperalimentation on complications in patients with carcinoma and weight loss. J Surg Res 23:31-34.
Howard L, Heaphey LL, Timchalk N. 1986. A review of current nutritional status of home parenteral and enteral nutrition from the provider and consumer perspective. JPEN 10:416-424.
Hyltander A, Drott C, Korner U, Sandstrom R, Lundholm K. 1991a. Elevated energy expenditure in cancer patients with solid tumours. Eur J Cancer 27: 9-15.
Hyltander A, Warnold I, Eden E, Lundholm K. 1991b. Effect on whole-body protein synthesis after institution of intravenous nutrition in cancer and non-cancer patients who lose weight. Eur J Cancer 27:16-21.
Imagawa W, Bandyopadhyay G, Wallace D, Nandi S. 1989. Phospholipids containing polyunsaturated acyl groups are mitogenic for normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in serum free primary cell culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:4122-4126.
Inagaki J, Rodriguez V, Bodey GP. 1974. Causes of death in cancer patients. Cancer 33: 568-573.
Issell BF, Valdivieso M, Zaren HA, et al. 1978. Protection against chemotherapy toxicity by IV hyperalimentation. Cancer Treat Rep 62:1139-1143.
Jacobs DO, Evans DA, O’Dwyer ST, et al. 1987. Disparate effects of 5-fluorouracil on the ileum and colon of enterally fed rats with protection by dietary glutamine. Surg Forum 38:45-47.
James H, Fabricius P, Chettle D, Dykes P. 1985. Whole body nitrogen and potassium measured by neutron activation analysis and whole body counting in malnourished cancer patients. Riv Ital Nutr Parent Ent 3:93-104.
Jebb SA, Osborne RJ, Maughan TS, et al. 1994. 5-Fluourouracil and folinic acid-induced mucositis: no effect of oral glutamine supplementation. Br J Cancer 70:732-735.
Jebb SA, Marcus R, Elia M. 1995. A pilot study of oral glutamine supplementation in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. Clin Nutr 14:162-165.
Jeevanandam M, Horowitz GD, Lowry SF, Brennan MF. 1984. Cancer cachexia and protein metabolism. Lancet 1:1423-1426.
Jeevanandam M, Legaspi A, Lowry SF et al. 1988. Effect of total parenteral nutrition on whole body protein kinetics in cachetic patients with benign or malignant disease. JPEN 12:229-236.
Jordan WM, Valdivieso M, Frankmann C, et al. 1981. Treatment of advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung with Ftorafur, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and cisplatin (FCAP) and intensive intravenous hyperalimentation. Cancer Treat Rep 65:197-206.
Kallinowski F, Runkel S, Fortmeyer HP, Förster H, Vaupel P. 1987. L-glutamine: a major substrate for tumor cells in vivo? J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 113:209-215.
Kardinal CG, Loprinzi CL, Schaid DJ, et al. 1990. A controlled trial of cyproheptadine in cancer patients with anorexia and/or cachexia. Cancer 65:2657-2662.
Kern KA, Norton JA. 1988. Cancer cachexia. JPEN 12:286-295.
Kinsella TJ, Malcolm AW, Bothe A Jr., et al. 1981. Prospective study of nutritional support during pelvic irradiation. Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7:543-548.
Klastersky J, Daneau D, Verhest A. 1972. Causes of death in patients with cancer. Eur J Cancer 8:149-154.
Klein S, Simes J, Blackburn GL. 1986. Total parenteral nutrition and cancer clinical trials. Cancer 58:1378-1386.
Klimberg VS, Souba WW, Salloum RM, et al. 1990. Glutamine-enriched diets support muscle glutamine metabolism without stimulating tumor growth. J Surg Res 48:319-323.
Klimberg VS, Nwodeki E, Hutchins LF, et al. 1992. Glutamine facilitates chemotherapy while reducing toxicity. JPEN 16(suppl.):83S-87S.
Knox L, Crosby L, Feurer I, Hansell J, Mangan C, Mullen JL. 1980. Energy expenditure and gynecologic cancer (abstract). Clin Res 28>620A.
Kovacevic Z, Morris HP. 1972. The role of glutamine in the oxidative metabolism of malignant cells. Cancer Res 32:326-335.
Kubota A, Meguid MM, Hitch DC. 1992. Amino acid profiles correlate diagnostically with organ site in three kinds of malignant tumors. Cancer 69:2343-2348.
Larrea J, Vega S, Martinez T, et al. 1992. The nutritional status and immunological situation of cancer patients. Nutricion Hospitalaria 7:178-187.
Lerner HJ and Regelson W. 1976. Clinical trial of hydrazine sulfate in solid tumors. Cancer Treat Rep 60:959-960.
Lim STK, Choa RG, Lam KH, Wong J, Ong GB. 1981. Total parenteral nutrition versus gastrostomy in the perioperative preparation of patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus. Br J Surg 68:69-72.
Lindmark L, Bennegard K, Eden E, et al. 1984. Resting expenditure in malnourished patients with and without cancer. Gastroenterol 87:402-408.
Lissoni P, Ardizzoia A, Perego MS, et al. 1993. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by pentoxifylline in advanced cancer patients wtih abnormally high blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Biol Regul Homeost Agenst 7:73-75.
Lissoni P, Paolorossi F, Tancini G, et al. 1996. Is there a role for melatonin in the treatment of neoplastic cachexia? Eur J Cancer 32A:1340-1343.
Loprinzi CL, Ellison NM, Schaid DJ, et al. 1990. Controlled trial of megestrol acetate for the treatment of cancer anorexia and cachexia. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:1127-1132.
Loprinzi CL, Schaid DJ, Dose AM, et al. 1993a. Body-composition changes in patients who gain weight while receiving megestrol acetate. J Clin Oncol 11:152-154.
Loprinzi CL, Ellison NM, Schaid DJ, et al. 1993b. Phase III evaluation of four doses of megestrol acetate as therapy for patients with cancer anorexia and/or cachexia. J Clin Oncol 11:762-767.
Lundholm K, Bylund AC, Holm J, Scherstén T. 1976. Skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with malignant tumour. Eur J Cancer 12:465-473.
Lundholm K, Bennegard K, Eden E, Svaniger G et al. 1982. Efflux of 3-methylhistidine from the leg in cancer patients who experience weight loss. Cancer Res 42:4807-4811.
Lundholm K, Gelin J, Hyltander A, et al. 1994. Anti-inflammatory treatment may prolong survival in undernourished patients with metastatic solid tumors. Cancer Res S4(21):5602-5606.
Magnusson J, Trenberg KG, Jeppsson B, et al. 1989. Enteral versus parenteral glucose as the sole nutritional support after colorectal resection: a prospective, randomized comparison. Scan J Gastroenterol 24:539-549.
Masuno H, Yoshimura H, Ogawa N, et al. 1984. Isolation of a lipolytic factor (toxohormone-L) from ascites fluid of patients with hepatoma and its effect of feeding behaviour. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 20:1177-1185.
MacFie J, Burkinshaw L, Oxby C, et al. 1982. The effect of gastrointestinal malignancy on resting metabolic expenditure. Br J Surg 69:443-446.
McGeer AJ, Detsky AS, O’Rourke K. 1990. Parenteral nutrition in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: a meta-analysis. Nutrition 6:233-240.
Meguid MM, Meguid V. 1985. Preoperative identification of the surgical patient in need of a postoperative supportive total parenteral nutrition. Cancer 55:258-262.
Meguid MM, Muscaritoli M, Beverly JL, et al. 1992. The early cancer anorexia paradigm: changes in plasma free tryptophan and feeding indexes. JPEN 16(6):56S-59S.
Meijerink WJHJ, Von Meyenfeldt MF, Rouflart MMJ, Soeters PB. 1992. Efficacy of perioperative nutritional support. Lancet 340:187-188 (letter).
Melville S, McNurlan MA, Calder AG, Garlick PJ. 1990. Increased protein turnover despite normal energy metabolism and responses to feeding in patients with lung cancer. Cancer Res 50:1125-31.
Merli M, Riggio O, Romiti M, Caschera A, Attili A, Santis AD, et al. 1990. Increased resting energy expenditure in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Nutr 9(suppl):37.
Merrick HW, Long CL, Grecos GP, Dennis RS, Blakemore WS. 1988. Energy requirements for cancer patients and the effect of total parenteral nutrition. JPEN 12:8-14.
Messing B, Landais P, Goldfarb B, Irving M. 1988. Home parenteral nutrition in adults: a multicentre survey in Europe. Clin Nutr 8:3-9.
Michie HR, Manogue KR, Spriggs DR, et al. 1988. Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endotoxin administration. N Engl J Med 318:1481-1486.
Minot GR and Means JH. 1924. The metabolism-pulse ratio in exophthalmic goitre and leukaemia. Arch Inst Med 32:576-580.
Moertel CG, Schutt AJ, Reitemeier RJ, et al. 1974. Coricosteroid therapy of preterminal gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer 33:1607-1609.
Moghissi K, Hornshaw J, Teasdale PR, Dawes EA. 1977. Parenteral nutrition in carcinoma of the oesophagus treated by surgery: nitrogen balance and clinical studies. Br J Surg 64:125-128.
Moldawer L, Rogy M, Lowry S. 1992. The role of cytokines in cancer cachexia. JPEN 16:43S-49S.
Monson JRT, Ramsden CW, MacFie J, Brennan TG, Guillou PJ. 1986. Immunorestorative effect of lipid emulsions during total parenteral nutrition. Br J Surg 73:843-846.
Morrison SD. 1976. Control of food intake in cancer cachexia: a challenge and a tool. Physiol Behav 17:705-714.
Mosconi C, Agradi E, Gambetta A, Bozzetti F, Galli C. 1989. Decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids and elevation of the oleic stearic acid ratio in plasma and red blood cell lipids of malnourished cancer patients. JPEN 13:501-504.
Mueller PS, Watkin DM. 1961. Plasma unesterified fatty acid concentrations in neoplastic disease. J Lab Clin Med 57:95-100.
Muller JM, Brenner U, Dienst C, Pichlmayr R. 1982. Preoperative parenteral feeding in patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma. Lancet 1:68-71.
Murphy JB, Means JH, Aub JC. 1917. Effect of roentgen ray and radium therapy on metabolism of patient with lymphatic leukemia. Arch Int Med 19:890-900.
Muscaritoli M, Cangiano C, Cascino A, et al. 1990. Plasma clearance of exogenous lipids in patients with malignant disease. Nutrition 6:147-151.
Musser JH and Edsall DL. 1905. Study of metabolism of leukemia under influence of x-ray. Tr Ass Am Phys 20: 294-321; also: Univ. Pennsylvania M. Bull 1905-1906. 18: 174-184.
Nakazaki H. 1992. Preoperative and postoperative cytokines in patients with cancer. Cancer 70:709-713.
Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, et al. 1994. A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia. J Palliat Cancer 10:14-18.
Newman E, Heslin MJ, Wolf RF, Pisters PWT, Brennan MF. 1992. The effect of insulin on glucose and protein metabolism in the forearm of cancer patients. Surg Oncol 1:257-267.
Ng EH, Rock CS, Lazarus D, et al. 1991. Impact of exogenous growth hormone on host preservation and tumor cell-cycle distribution in a rat sarcoma model. J Surg Res 51:99-105.
Nixon DW, Heymsfield SB, Cohen A, et al. 1980. Protein-calorie undernutrition in hospitalized cancer patients. Am J Med 68:683-690.
Nixon DW, Moffit S, Lawson DH, et al. 1981a. Total parenteral nutrition as an adjunct to chemotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 65:121-128.
Nixon DW, Heymsfield SB, Lawson DH, et al. 1981b. Effect of total parenteral nutrition on survival in advanced colon cancer. Cancer Detect Preven 4:421-427.
Nixon DW, Kutner M, Heymsfield S, Foltz AT, Carty CH, Seitz S, et al. 1988. Resting energy expenditure in lung and colon cancer. Metabolism 37:1059-1064.
Norton JA, Burt ME, Brennan MF. 1980. In vivo utilization of substrate by human sarcoma-bearing limbs. Cancer 45:2934-2939.
Norton JA, Stein TP, Brennan MF. 1981. Whole body protein synthesis and turnover in normal man and malnourished patients with and without known cancer. Ann Surg 194:123-128.
O’Dwyer ST, Scott T, Smith RJ, et al. 1987. 5-fluorouracil toxicity on small intestinal mucosa but not white blood cells is decreased by glutamine. Clin Res 35:369 (asbstract).
Ochoa M, Wittes R, Krakoff I. 1975. Trial of hydrazine sulfate (NSC-150014) in patients with cancer. Cancer Chemother Rep 59:1151-1153.
O'Keefe SJD, Ogden J, Ramjee G, et al. 1990. Contribution of elevated protein turnover and anorexia to cachexia in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res 50:1226-1230.
Ollenschlaeger G, Konkol K, Wickramanayake PD, Schrappe-Baecher M, Mueller JM. 1989. Nutrient intake in cancer patients and nitrogen metabolism during oncological chemotherapy. Am J Clin Nutr 50:454-459.
Ookhtens M, Kannan R, Lyon I, Baker N. 1984. Liver and adipose tissue contributions to newly formed fatty acids in an anscites tumor. Am J Physiol 247:R146-153.
Ota DM, Nishioka K, Foulkes M, Grossie VB. 1984. Nutritional parameters affecting erythroctye polyamine levels in cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2:1157-1164.
Ota DM, Frasier P, Guevara J, Foulkes M. 1985a. Plasma protein as indices of response to nutritional therapy in cancer patients. J Surg Oncol 29:160-165.
• Ota DM, Jessup JM, Babcock GF, Kirschbaum L, Mountain CF, McMurtrey MJ, Copeland EM. 1985b. Immune function
during intravenous administration of a soybean oil emulsion. JPEN 9:23-27.
Ota DM, Nishioka K, Grossie B, Dixon D. 1986. Erytrocyte polyamine levels during intravenous feeding of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 7:837-842.
Pareira MD, Conrad EJ, Hicks W, Elman R. 1954. Therapeutic nutrition and tube feeding. JAMA 156:810-820.
Pareira MD, Conrad EJ, Hicks W, Elman R. 1955. Clinical response and changes in nitrogen balance, body weight, plasma proteins, and hemoglobin following tube feeding in cancer cachexia. Cancer 8:803-808.
Parrilli G, Iaffaioli V, Martorano M, et al. 1989. L’assorbimento intestinale in pazienti con neoplasia mammaria. RINPE 7:21-27.
Penn RL, Maca RD, Berg RD. 1985. Increased translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts o ftumour-bearing mice. Infect Immun 47:793-798.
Popiela T, Lucchi R, Giongo F. 1989. Methylprednisolone as palliative therapy for female terminal cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 25:1823-1829.
Popp MB, Fisher RI, Simon RM, Brennan MF. 1981a. A prospective randomized study of adjuvant parenteral nutrition in the treatment of diffuse lymphoma: effect on drug tolerance. Cancer Treat Rep 65 (suppl 5):129-135.
Popp MB, Fisher RI, Wesley R, et al. 1981b. A prospective randomized study of adjuvant parenteral nutrition in the treatment of advanced diffuse lymphoma: influence on survival. Surgery 90:195-203.
Prentice AM, Goldberg GR, Jebb SA, Black AE, Murgatroyd PR. 1991. Physiological responses to slimming. Proc Nutr Soc 50:441-458.
Rasmussen A, Segel E, Trier E, Aagaard M, Hessov I. 1985. The effect of preoperative nutrition on the immune system. Clin Nutr 4:175-178.
Ravera E, Radaelli G, Migliavacca S, Bozzetti F. 1986. Effetti della nutrizione enterale sullo stato nutrizionale dei pazienti con cachessia neoplastica. Riv Ital Nutr Parent Ent 4:43-50.
Ray PD, Hanson RL. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis by hydrazine. 1969. Fed Proc 28:411 (abstract).
Reitzer LJ, Wice BM, Kennell D. 1979. Evidence that glutamine, not sugar, is the major energy source for cultured HeLa cells. J Biol Chem 254:2669-2775.
Rice ML, Van Rij AM. 1987. Parenteral nutrition and tumor growth in the patient with complicated abdominal cancer. Aus N Z J Surg 57:375-379.
Rickard KA, Logmani ES, Grosfeld JL, et al. 1985. Short- and long-term effectiveness of enteral and parenteral nutrition in reversing or preventing protein-energy malnutrition in advanced neuroblastoma: a prospective randomized study. Cancer 56:2881-2897.
Rossi Fanelli F, Cangiano C. 1991. Increased availability of tryptophan in brain as a common pathogenic mechanism for anorexia associated with different diseases. Nutrition 7:364-367.
Roubenhoff R, Heymsfield SB, Kehayias JJ, Cannon JG, Rosenberg IH. 1997. Standardization of nomenclature of body composition in weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 66:192-196.
Russell DM, Shike M, Marliss EB, et al. 1984. Effects of total parenteral nutrition and chemotherapy on the metabolic derangements in small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res 44:1706-1711.
Sako K, Lore JM, Kaufman S, Razack MS, Bakamijan V, Reese P. 1981. Parenteral hyperalimentation in surgical patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized study. J Surg Oncol 16:391-402.
Samuels ML, Selig DE, Ogden S, et al. 1981. IV hyperalimentation and chemotherapy for stage III testicular cancer: a randomized study. Cancer Treat Rep 65:615-627.
Sauer LA, Dauchy RT. 1983. Ketone body, glucose, lactic acid, and amino acid utilization by tumors in vivo in fasted rats. Cancer Res 43:3497-3503.
Schloerb PR, Amare M. 1993. Total parenteral nutrition with glutamine in bone marrow transplantation and other clinical applications (a randomized, double-blind study). JPEN 17:407-413.
Schwartz GF, Green HL, Bendon ML, et al. 1971. Combined parenteral hyperalimentation and chemotherapy in the treatment of disseminated solid tumors. Am J Surg 121:169-173.
Selby P, Hobbs S, Viner C, et al. 1987. Tumor necrosis factor in man., Clinical and biological observations. Br J Cancer 56:803-808.
Shamberger RC, Brennan MF, Goodgame JT Jr., et al. 1984. A prospective, randomized study of adjuvant parenteral nutrition in the treatment of sarcomas: results of metabolic and survival studies. Surgery 96:1-12.
Shaw JHF, Wolfe RR. 1987a. Glucose and urea kinetics in patients with early and advanced gastrointestinal cancer: the response to glucose infusion, parenteral feeding, and surgical resection. Surgery 101:181-191.
Shaw JHF, Wolfe RR. 1987b. Fatty acid and glycerol kinetics in septic patients and in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Ann Surg 205:368-376.
Shaw JHF, Wolfe RR. 1988a. Whole-body protein kinetics in patients with early and advanced gastrointestinal cancer: the response to glucose infusion and total parenteral nutrition. Surgery 103:148-155.
Shaw JHF. 1988b. Influences of stress, depletion and/or malignant disease on the responsiveness of surgical patients to total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin 48:144-147.
Shaw JHF, Holdaway CM. 1988c. Protein-sparing of substrate infusion in surgical patients is governed by the clinical state, and not by the individual infused. JPEN 12:433-440.
Shaw JHF, Humberstone DA, Wolfe RR. 1988d. Energy and protein metabolism in sarcoma patients. Ann Surg 207:283-289.
Shaw JHF, Humberstone DA, Douglas RG, Koea J. 1991. Leucine kinetics in patients with benign disease, non-weight-losing cancer, and cancer cachexia: studies at the whole-body and tissue level and the response to nutritional support. Surgery 109:37-50.
Shike M, Russell D, Detsky AS, Harrison JE, et al. 1984. Changes in body composition in patients with small-cell lung cancer. The effect of TPN as an adjunct to chemotherapy. Ann Inter Med 101:303-309.
Shils ME. 1979. Principles of nutritional support. Cancer 43:2093-2102.
Shivshanker K, Bennett RW, Jr. Haynie TP. 1983. Tumor associated gastroparesis: correction with metoclopramide. Am J Surg 145:221-225.
Silver S, Paroto P, Crohn EB. 1950. Hypermetabolic states without hyperthyroidism. Arch Intern Med 85:479-482.
Sitges-Serra A, Gil Egea MJ, Martinez Rodenas F. 1988. The influence of TPN formulation on the metabolic response to preoperative refeeding in depleted patients. British J Clin Pract 63:133-137.
Smale BF, Mullen JL, Buzby GP, et al. 1981. The efficacy of nutritional assessment and support in cancer surgery. Cancer 47:2375-2381.
Smith RJ. 1990. Glutamine metabolism and its physiologic significance. JPEN 14(suppl.):40s-44s.
Socher SH, Martinez D, Craig JB, et al. 1988. Tumor necrosis factor not detectable in patients with clinical cancer cachexia. J Natl Cancer Inst 80:595-598.
Souba WW, Strebel FR, Bull JM, et al. 1988. Interorgan metabolism in the tumour-bearing rat. J Surg Res 44:720-726.
Souba WW, Klimberg VS, Salloum RM, et al. 1990. Tumor modulation of intestinal glutaminase activity. FASEB J 4:A1042 (abstract).
Spemulli E, Wampler GL, Regelson W. 1979. Clinical study of hydrazine sulfate in advanced cancer patients. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 3:121-124.
Starnes HF Jr, Warren RS, Jeevanandam M, et al. 1988. Tumor necrosis factor and the acute metabolic response to tissue injury in man. J Clin Invest 82:1321-1325.
Strassmann G, Masui Y, Chizzonite R, Fong M. 1993. Mechanism of experimental cancer cachexia. Local involvement of IL-1 in colon-26 tumor. J Immunol 150:2341-2345.
Swenerton KD, Legha SS, Smith T, et al. 1979. Prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer treated with combination chemotherapy. Cancer Res 39:1552-1562.
Szeluga DJ, Stuart RK, Brookmeyer R, et al. 1987. Nutritional support of bone marrow transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing total parenteral nutrition to an enteral feeding program. Cancer Res 47:3309-3316.
Tan YS, Nambiar R, Yo SL. 1992. Prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition in general surgical patients. Ann Acad Med (Singapore) 21:334-341.
Tayek JA, Bistrian BR, Hehir DJ, et al. 1986. Improved protein kinetics and albumin synthesis by branched chain aminoacid-enriched total parenteral nutrition in cancer cachexia. A prospective randomized crossover trial. Cancer 58:147-157.
Tayek JA, Heber D, Chlebowski RT. 1987. Effect of hydrazine sulphate on whole-body protein breakdown measured by 14C-lysine metabolism in lung cancer patients. Lancet 2:241-243.
Taylor DD, Gercel-Taylor C, Jenis LG, et al. 1992. Identification of a human tumor-derived lipolysis-promoting factor. Cancer Res 82:829-834.
Tchekmedyian NS, Hickman M, Siau J, et al. 1992. Megestrol acetate in cancer anorexia and weight loss. Cancer 69:1268-1274.
Terepka AR, Waterhouse C. 1956. Metabolic observations during the forced feeding of patients with cancer. Am J Med 20: 225-230.
Thompson MP, Cooper ST, Parry BR, et al. 1993. Increased expression of the mRNA for hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue of cancer patients. Biochim Biophys Acta 1180:236-242.
Thompson BR, Julian TB, Stremple JF. 1981. Perioperative parenteral nutrition in parents with gastrointestinal cancer. J Surg Res 30:497-500.
Tisdale MJ, Brennan RA. 1983. Loss of acetoacetate coenzyme-A transferase activity in tumors of peripheral tissues. Br J Cancer 47:293-297.
Tisdale MJ. 1997. Cancer cachexia: metabolic alterations and clinical manifestations. Nutrition 13:1-7.
Todorov P, Cariuk P, McDevitt T, et al. 1996. Characterization of a cancer cachectic factor. Nature 379:739-742.
Toomey D, Redmond HP, Bouchier-Hayes D. 1995. Mechanisms mediating cancer cachexia. Cancer 76:2418-26.
Torosian MH, Tsou KC, Daly JM, Mullen JL, Stein TP, Miller EE, Buzby GP. 1984. Alterations of tumor cell kinetics by pulse total parenteral nutrition. Cancer 53:1409-1415.
Tsai M, Yu C, Wei F, Stacey D. 1988. The effect of GTPase activating protein upon Ras is inhibited by mitogenically responsive lipids. Science 243:522-525.
Tuckey JA, Parr BR, McCall JL. 1993. Pentoxifylline and well-being in cancer. Lancet 342:617 (letter).
Valdivieso M, Bodey GP, Benjamin RS, et al. 1981. Role of intravenous hyperalimentation as an adjunct to intensive chemotherapy for small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 65 (suppl 5):145-150.
Van der Hulst RRW, Van Kneel BK, von Meyenfeldt MF, et al. 1993. Glutamine and preservation of gut integrity. Lancet 34:1363-1365.
Van Eys J, Copeland EM, Cangir A, et al. 1980. A clinical trial of hyperalimentation in children with metastatic malignancies. Med Pediatr Oncol 8:63-73.
Van Gossum A, Bakker H, De Francesco A, et al. 1996. Home parenteral nutrition in adults: a multicentre survey in Europe in 1993. Clin Nutr 15:53-59.
Von Meyenfeldt MF, Meijerink WJHJ, Rouflart MMJ, Buil-Maassen MTHJ, Soeters PB. 1992. Perioperative nutritional support: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr 11:180-186.
Waddell WR, Grillo HC. 1949. Metabolic effect of fat emulsion. Am J Clin Nutr 7:43-50.
Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, et al. 1990. Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients (Abstract 1280). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 9:331.
Warnold I, Lundholm K, Scherstén T. 1978. Energy balance and body composition in cancer patients. Cancer Res 38:1801-1807.
Warren RS, Starnes HF, Jr., Gabrilove JL, Oettgen MF, Brennan MF. 1987. The acute metabolic effects of tumor necrosis factor administration in humans. Arch Surg 122:1396-1400.
Warren S. 1932. The immediate cause of death in cancer. Am J Med Sci 184:610-615.
Waterhouse CL, Fenninger LD, Keutmann EH. 1951. Nitrogen exchange and caloric expenditure in patients with malignant neoplasm. Cancer 4: 500-514.
Waterhouse C, Nye WHR. 1961. Metabolic effects of infused triglycerides. Metabolism 10:403-414.
Waterhouse C, Jeanpretre N, Keilson J. 1979. Gluconeogenesis from alanine in patients with progressive malignant disease. Cancer Res 39: 1968-1972.
Waterhouse C, Mason J. 1981. Leucine metabolism in patients with malignant disease. Cancer 48:939-944.
Watkin D, Steinfeld JL. 1965. Nutrient and energy metabolism in patients with and without cancer during hyperalimentation with fat administered intravenously. Am J Clin Nutr 16:182-212.
Weisdorf SA, Lysne J, Wind D, et al. 1987. Positive effect of prophylactic total parenteral nutrition in children with cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 10:129-139.
Westin T, Stein H, Niedobitek G, Lundholm K, Edstrom S. 1991. Tumor cytokinetic response to total parenteral nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 53:764-768.
Wigmore SJ, Ross JA, Falconer JS, et al. 1996. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the progress of cachexia in patients with pancreatic cancer. Nutrition 12(1 suppl):S27-S30.
Willox JC, Corr J, Shaw J, et al. 1984. Prednisolone as an appetite stimulant in patients with cancer. Br Med J 288:27.
Wolf RF, Pearlstone DB, Newman E, et al. 1992. Growth hormone and insulin reverse net whole body and skeletal muscle protein catabolism in cancer patients. Ann Surg 216:280-288.
Woolfson AMJ, Smith JAR. 1989. Elective nutritional support after major surgery: a prospective randomised trial. Clin Nutr 8:15-21.
Yanagawa H, Sone S, Takahashi Y, et al. 1995. Serum levels of interleukin 6 in patients with lung cancer. Br J Cancer 71:1095-1098.
Yoneda T, Alsira MA, Chavez JB, et al. 1991. Evidence that tumor necrosis factor plays a pathogenetic role in the paraneoplastic syndrome of cachexia, hypercalcemia and leukocytosis in a human tumor in nude mice. J Clin Invest 87:977-985.
Ziegler TR, Young LS, Benfall K, et al. 1992. Clinical and metabolic efficiency of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 116:821-828.
Pharmacological therapy is relatively cost-effective whenadded to smoking cessation counsellingAbstracted from: Song F, Raftery J, Aveyard P et al. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: aliterature review and a decision analytical analysis. Med Dec Making 2002; 22: S26 ^S37. sustained release bupropion are pharmacological agentstal cost per life-year saved ($
NOVEL TRIPLOID CITRUS FRUITS BY INTERPLOID HYBRIDIZATION; POTENTIAL FOR LIME IMPROVEMENT Jude W. Grosser*, Zenaida Viloria, and Frederick G. Gmitter, Jr., University of Florida, IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL 33850 ABSTRACT Our citrus improvement program has relied heavily on interspecific hybridization of complementary parents as needed to package