Cool site pour acheter des pilules https://jacup.com/ Ne pas se perdre venir sur.
Identification of counterfeit pharmaceuticals using the ramanstation 400
Identification of CounterfeitPharmaceuticals Using the
In recent years there has been significant growth in the
counterfeiting of clothing, computer games, music and
alcohol. Since the early days of counterfeiting, organized
crime has become heavily involved and the practice now
There are three main types of counterfeit pharmaceuticals:
• Re-packaged, out-of-date but genuine pharmaceuticals
The result of pharmaceutical counterfeiting might be as subtleas the drug’s failure to cure a headache. However, if a counter-feit material is used to treat serious illness such as malaria orHIV/AIDS, the result could be fatal.
In the developed world, counterfeiting is mainly restricted to easily recognized products such as Viagra™ or Tylenol™. In the developing world however the practice of counterfeitingis widespread. The World Health Organization estimated the sales of counterfeit drugs to be worth up to $40 billion in 2006.1
w w w. p e r k i n e l m e r. c o m
Raman analysis of tablets and packaging
However, analysis of the tablets themselves is the mostdiscriminatory. In order to maximize profit, forgers will
Raman spectroscopy is particularly suited to the analysis
either forego the use of API in the product or use a cheap
of counterfeit materials as it is non-destructive and can
API such as aspirin or acetaminophen. More expert
be used to assess both the authenticity of the packaging
forgers might use the correct API, but have the incorrect
blend of fillers (e.g. lactose) and lubricating agents (e.g.
It is often the case that the packaging is printed to look
authentic but the inks used are seldom the same as on
As can be seen in Figure 2, the genuine pharmaceutical
the genuine product. Raman analysis of ink used in the
tablet gives a spectrum of a complex blend of API and
packaging can be a simple discriminator when identifying
excipients while the counterfeit material shows a Raman
counterfeit products. In Figure 1 the differences can
spectrum consisting entirely of lactose and cellulose.
clearly be seen between the red ink from the authenticpackaging and the ink from an identical-looking counter-feit package. This technique is particularly useful if
analyzing repackaged, out-of-date product. Analysis of
1. Katie Merx, “Can you tell which pills are fake?”,
the polymers in blister packs can also be used to identify
Detroit Free Press, July 26, 2006, and Judy Alta,
“Counterfeit Drugs Seen as Growing Problem,” The United States Mission to the European Union,November 16, 2006.
Comparison of Raman spectra of ink on outer cardboard pack-
Raman spectra of authentic (upper spectrum) and counterfeit
aging of authentic (upper spectrm) and counterfeit (lower spectrum)
(lower spectrum) tablets, analyzed on RamanStation 400.
pharmaceuticals, analyzed on RamanStation 400.
940 Winter Street
Waltham, MA 02451 USA
Phone: (800) 762-4000 or
For a complete listing of our global offices, visit www.perkinelmer.com/lasoffices
2007 PerkinElmer, Inc. All rights reserved. The PerkinElmer logo and design are registered trademarks of PerkinElmer, Inc. Tylenol is a trademark of McNeil-PPC, Inc. Viagra is a registeredtrademark of Pfizer Inc. All other trademarks not owned by PerkinElmer, Inc. or its subsidiaries that are depicted herein are the property of their respective owners. PerkinElmer reserves theright to change this document at any time without notice and disclaims liability for editorial, pictorial or typographical errors.
VUB Technology Offer Demand for human- relevant hepatic in vitro models for safety Human-relevant hepatic system testing of drugs derived from adult stem cells A protocol was established based on the state of the art knowledge of liver development and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Accordingly, to obtain human hepatocyte-like cells, postnatal stem c
Volunteer Handbook Peace Corps Thailand May 1, 1964 L. VOLUNTEER READING AND RELATED SERVICES " 21 O. TERMINATION OF SERVICE, EXTENSION OF SERVICE AND RE-ENROLLMENT A. Introduction The Volunteers are the Peace Corps. Our success depends on nothing more or less than thefreedom, initiative and sense of individual responsibility of each of you. Thus, there are greatresponsibil