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Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances The challenge of micropollutants in urban water management Edited byThomas A. Ternes and Adriano Joss Published by IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, UK
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7654 5500; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7654 5555; Email: Web: Printed by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall, UK Index compiled by Indexing Specialists (UK) Ltd, Hove, UK Original cover design: Yvonne Lehnhard, Eawag; Figure layout: Lydia Zweifel, Eawag. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1998), no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of the publisher, or, in the case of photographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of licenses issued by the appropriate reproduction rights organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to IWA Publishing at the The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for errors or Disclaimer
The information provided and the opinions given in this publication are not necessarily those of IWA or of the authors, and should not be acted upon without independent consideration and professional advice. IWA and the editors will not accept responsibility for any loss or damage suffered by any person acting or refraining from acting upon any material contained in this publication. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Foreword.xiAcknowledgement .xiii List of contributors .xvi 1.1 Urban water cycle .11.2 Concerns of exposure to PPCPs.21.3 Objectives of this book.51.4 Target compounds: pharmaceuticals and personal care products .61.5 Selected PPCPs .81.6 Chapter contents.8 2.2 Excretion rates of selected pharmaceuticals .202.3 Exposure routes of human-use pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances.23 Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances 2.4 Occurrence in hospital and municipal wastewater, surface water, groundwater, drinking water, and sewage sludge .252.4.1 2.5 Modelling of expected concentrations.38 Prediction of pharmaceuticals concentration in raw municipal sewage .39 Prediction of the pharmaceutical concentration in the STP effluent and surface water.40 Example: comparison of PEC and MEC of ciprofloxacin in treated wastewater and surface water .44 3.1 Introduction.553.2 Sampling .573.3 Extraction and enrichment .63 High-performance liquid chromatography.75 Example: estrogens in sludge and sediments.86 4a A brief overview on the legal background and the regulatory instruments of the environmental risk assessment for pharmaceuticals in the EU, USA, Japan, Australia and Canada 4a.1 Introduction. 1074a.2 Situation in the EU. 108 4a.7 Harmonisation of data between regions. 1164a.8 Conclusions . 116 4b.1 Introduction. 1214b.2 Methods and performance of environmental risk assessment . 125 Summary of environmental risk assessments for the selected PPCPs according to EMEA . 141 Considerations on the EMEA Risk Assessment Scheme. 142 5 Human and animal toxicology of some water-borne pharmaceuticals. 149 5.1 Introduction. 1495.2 Pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants: classes, concentrations and Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances 5.3 Estrogens and estrogen-mimicking compounds. 155 Xeno-estrogens (endocrine disrupters) . 157 Sulfonamides and diaminopyrimidines . 164 5.5 Antineoplastic drugs. 1775.6 Radioopaques (contrast media) . 1805.7 Anticonvulsants. 1815.8 Adrenergic agents . 1825.9 Discussion. 1845.10 Prophylactic measures for risk minimization . 1865.11 Outlook . 1875.12 Appendix: Details on the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of Sulfonamides and diaminopyrimidines . 192 5.12.10 Antineoplastic drugs . 2155.12.11 Radioopaques (contrast media) . 2195.12.12 Anticonvulsants. 2235.12.13 Adrenergic agents. 228 6.1 Introduction. 2436.2 PPCP removal mechanisms. 246 6.3 PPCP removal in complete systems . 261 Complete systems: sampling and mass balances. 261 Modelling removal in complete systems. 266 Observed removal in complete systems . 272 Biological activity in flocculation filtration. 276 6.4 Loss of wastewater in the sewer system. 280 7 Removal of PPCP during drinking water treatment . 293 7.1 Drinking water regulations . 2937.2 Multibarrier systems for drinking water production . 295 Treatment processes for the removal of micropollutants. 296 7.3 Physico-chemical constants: A tool to assess the removal efficiency for Adsorption of pharmaceuticals on activated carbon . 308 7.4 Assessment of unit processes for the reduction of pharmaceutical concen- Evaluation of the treatment processes in full-scale waterworks . 316 Water quality concerns of potable water reuse . 326 Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances Main objectives and outcomes of POSEIDON project in the field of water reuse . 328 8.2 Water quality requirements and existing guidelines for planned indirect 8.3 Treatment requirements and case studies of planned indirect potable water Case studies of the EU project POSEIDON . 334 8.4 PPCPs as anthropogenic tracers in groundwater. 3398.5 Management tools for indirect potable reuse. 341 Strategy for planned indirect potable reuse of wastewater with the emphasis on PPCP removal. 342 9.1 Introduction. 3539.2 Source control. 355 Environmental classification of pharmaceuticals . 356 Targeted therapy instead of prophylactic or empiric consumption of medicine . 369 Industry, hospitals and nursing homes: on site treatment . 373 10.1 Conclusions . 38510.2 Outlook………. 391 A.1 Abbreviations used in the chapters . 393A.2 Variables and symbols . 395A.3 Units………. 396A.4 Glossary. . 397A.5 List of compounds . 406 An emerging environmental issue, namely the entering of residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment, was selected as a research priority in the European Union 5th Framework Programme for Research. Although there had been evidence of the presence of these compounds in the water resources, the significance of the occurrence had not been established due to lack of concentration, fate, behavioural and ecotoxicological data. In order to address these questions at the European level the POSEIDON project was introduced and supported by the European Commission 5th Framework programme for Research, under the Key Action “Water Management and Quality”. The overall aim of the project was to establish European-wide data about the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the water resources and to evaluate the possible risks they pose as well as the possibilities to prevent the contamination. Hence, the aim was to assess the optimal treatment technologies both for wastewater treatment and drinking water treatment processes. The POSEIDON project also played a leading role in the establishment of the European Pharma-Cluster, which also involved the EC-funded REMPHARMAWATER and ERAVMIS projects. Human Pharmaceuticals, Hormones and Fragrances One of the initiatives of the Pharma-Cluster was the “European Conference on Human and Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in the Environment” organised by Cemagref on April 2003. This conference brought together a wide range of participants representing European scientists, stakeholders and regulators as well as international scientists or regulatory agencies. The projects involved in the Pharma-Cluster were able to make significant contributions for the existing and new knowledge in this area of research. In addition, the results have contributed in terms of possible solutions for improved prevention of the environmental contamination both for residues of human and animal pharmaceuticals as well as of personal care products. A successful press event was organised in June 2003 to present the achievements of all the Cluster projects. This event further promoted the leading role of the European scientists in this area of research and it resulted in around 100 press articles worldwide. In addition, the POSEIDON project - through a specific training activity (TRITON) - also contributed successfully to the training of young European scientists. The important aim was to disseminate and transfer the knowledge obtained in methods and techniques widely, not only among the scientific teams but also to the end-users that were linked to the projects. POSEIDON and the other Pharma-cluster projects had the merit to put the problem of pharmaceutical residues in the environment to the attention of decision makers and regulators with scientifically sound data Europe-wide. However, they also showed the limits of our knowledge, which is still poor in the field of the toxicological risk of drug residues for the various biotic components of our environment. ERAPharm, an on-going FP6 project, is continuing in this direction, with the active participation of several partners of the POSEIDON consortium and other Pharma-cluster projects. We are convinced of the importance of this research effort which will benefit



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