Cool site pour acheter des pilules https://jacup.com/ Ne pas se perdre venir sur.
[EB] APPENDIX J
EXISTING BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES
AJ102.4 Replacement windows.
Regardless of the category
PURPOSE AND INTENT
of work, when an entire existing window, including frame,
sash and glazed portion is replaced, the replacement window
The purpose of these provisions is to
shall comply with the requirements of Section N1102.4.
encourage the continued use or reuse of legally existing build-
ings and structures. These provisions are intended to permit
AJ102.5 Flood Hazard areas.
Work performed in existing
work in existing buildings that is consistent with the purpose
buildings located in a flood hazard area as established by
of the International Residential Code
. Compliance with these
Table R301.2(1) shall be subject to the provisions of
provisions shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the
International Residential Code
AJ102.6 Equivalent alternatives.
These provisions are not
AJ101.2 Classification of work.
For purposes of this appen-
intended to prevent the use of any alternate material, alternate
dix, all work in existing buildings shall be classified into the
design or alternate method of construction not specifically
categories of repair, renovation, alteration and reconstruction.
prescribed herein, provided any alternate has been deemed to
Specific requirements are established for each category of
be equivalent and its use authorized by the building official.
AJ102.7 Other alternatives.
Where compliance with these
AJ101.3 Multiple categories of work.
Work of more than
provisions or with this code as required by these provisions is
one category may be part of a single work project. All related
technically infeasible or would impose disproportionate costs
work permitted within a 12-month period shall be considered
because of structural, construction or dimensional difficul-
a single work project. Where a project includes one category
ties, other alternatives may be accepted by the building
of work in one building area and another category of work in a
official. These alternatives may include materials, design
separate and unrelated area of the building, each project area
features and/or operational features.
shall comply with the requirements of the respective category
of work. Where a project with more than one category of work
AJ102.8 More restrictive requirements.
Buildings or sys-
is performed in the same area or in related areas of the build-
tems in compliance with the requirements of this code for new
ing, the project shall comply with the requirements of the
construction shall not be required to comply with any more
restrictive requirement of these provisions.
AJ102.9 Features exceeding International Residential
Elements, components and systems of
existing buildings with features that exceed the requirements
of this code for new construction, and are not otherwise re-
Regardless of the category of work being
quired as part of approved alternative arrangements or
performed, the work shall not cause the structure to become
deemed by the building official to be required to balance other
unsafe or adversely affect the performance of the building;
building elements not complying with this code for new
shall not cause an existing mechanical or plumbing system to
construction, shall not be prevented by these provisions from
become unsafe, hazardous, insanitary or overloaded; and un-
being modified as long as they remain in compliance with the
less expressly permitted by these provisions, shall not make
applicable requirements for new construction.
the building any less conforming to this code or to any pre-
viously approved alternative arrangements than it was before
AJ102.2 Requirements by category of work.
conform to the requirements of Section AJ301. Renovations
shall conform to the requirements of Section AJ401. Alter-
If a building permit is required at the
ations shall conform to the requirements of Section AJ501 and
request of the prospective permit applicant, the building offi-
the requirements for renovations. Reconstructions shall
cial or his designee shall meet with the prospective applicant
conform to the requirements of Section AJ601 and the
to discuss plans for any proposed work under these provisions
requirements for alterations and renovations.
prior to the application for the permit. The purpose of this
preliminary meeting is for the building official to gain an
AJ102.3 Smoke detectors.
Regardless of the category of
understanding of the prospective applicant’s intentions for the
work, smoke detectors shall be provided where required by
proposed work, and to determine, together with the prospec-
tive applicant, the specific applicability of these provisions.
2003 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE
MATERIALS AND METHODS REQUIREMENTS.
EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING BUILDING
Those requirements in this code that specify material stand-
ards, details of installation and connection, joints, penetra-
tions, and continuity of any element, component or system in
existing building to be investigated and evaluated by a
the building. The required quantity, fire resistance, flame
registered design professional in the case of proposed recon-
spread, acoustic or thermal performance, or other perfor-
struction of any portion of a building. The evaluation shall
mance attribute is specifically excluded from materials and
determine the existence of any potential nonconformities with
these provisions, and shall provide a basis for determining the
impact of the proposed changes on the performance of the
The reconfiguration of a space that
building. The evaluation shall utilize the following sources of
affects an exit, a renovation and/or alteration when the work
area is not permitted to be occupied because existing means of
1. Available documentation of the existing building.
egress and fire protection systems, or their equivalent, are not
in place or continuously maintained; and/or there are exten-
sive alterations as defined in Section AJ501.3.
1.2. Tests (nondestructive and destructive).
Any repair, renovation, alteration or
reconstruction work undertaken in an existing building.
Detached one- or two-family dwellings that are
The change, strengthening or addition of
not irregular buildings under Section R301.2.2.6 and are
load-bearing elements; and/or the refinishing, replacement,
not undergoing an extensive reconstruction shall not be
bracing, strengthening, upgrading or extensive repair of exist-
ing materials, elements, components, equipment and/or
fixtures. Renovation involves no reconfiguration of spaces.
Interior and exterior painting are not considered refinishing
for purposes of this definition, and are not renovation.
The patching, restoration and/or minor replace-
AJ105.1 Identification of work area.
The work area shall be
ment of materials, elements, components, equipment and/or
clearly identified on all permits issued under these provisions.
fixtures for the purposes of maintaining such materials,
elements, components, equipment and/or fixtures in good or
That portion of a building affected by any
renovation, alteration or reconstruction work as initially in-
tended by the owner and indicated as such in the permit. Work
For purposes of this appendix, the terms
area excludes other portions of the building where incidental
work entailed by the intended work must be performed, and
The reconfiguration of any space, the addi-
portions of the building where work not initially intended by
tion or elimination of any door or window, the reconfiguration
the owner is specifically required by these provisions for a
or extension of any system, or the installation of any
renovation, alteration or reconstruction.
additional equipment.CATEGORIES OF WORK.
The nature and extent of
construction work undertaken in an existing building. The
categories of work covered in this Appendix, listed in increas-
ing order of stringency of requirements, are repair, renova-
Except as otherwise required herein,
tion, alteration and reconstruction.
work shall be done using like materials or materials permitted
Where the stresses in any member; the con-
dition of the building, or any of its components or elements or
AJ301.1.1 Hazardous materials.
Hazardous materials no
attachments; or other condition that results in an overload
longer permitted, such as asbestos and lead-based paint,
exceeding 150 percent of the stress allowed for the member or
AJ301.1.2 Plumbing materials and supplies.
EQUIPMENT OR FIXTURE.
Any plumbing, heating,
ing plumbing materials and supplies shall not be used:
electrical, ventilating, air conditioning, refrigerating and fire
1. All-purpose solvent cement, unless listed for the
protection equipment, and elevators, dumb waiters, boilers,
pressure vessels, and other mechanical facilities or installa-
2. Flexible traps and tailpieces, unless listed for the
tions that are related to building services.
Any column, girder, beam,
3. Solder having more than 0.2 percent lead in the re-
joist, truss, rafter, wall, floor or roof sheathing that supports
any vertical load in addition to its own weight, and/or any
AJ301.2 Water closets.
When any water closet is replaced
with a newly manufactured water closet, the replacement
2003 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE
water closet shall comply with the requirements of Section
2. Newly installed electrical equipment shall comply
with the requirements of Section AJ501.5.
AJ301.3 Safety glazing.
Replacement glazing in hazardous
The work shall not increase the
locations shall comply with the safety glazing requirements of
extent of noncompliance with the requirements of Section
AJ601, or create nonconformity with those requirements
Existing electrical wiring and equipment
undergoing repair shall be permitted to be repaired or replaced
AJ501.3 Extensive alterations.
When the total area of all the
work areas included in an alteration exceeds 50 percent of the
area of the dwelling unit, the work shall be considered as a
reconstruction and shall comply with the requirements of
1. Replacement of electrical receptacles shall comply
these provisions for reconstruction work.
with the requirements of Chapters 33 through 42.
Work areas in which the alteration work is
2. Plug fuses of the Edison-base type shall be used for
exclusively plumbing, mechanical or electrical shall not be
replacements only where there is no evidence of
included in the computation of total area of all work areas.
over-fusing or tampering per the applicable require-
The minimum design loads for the struc-
ture shall be the loads applicable at the time the building was
3. For replacement of nongrounding-type receptacles
constructed, provided that no dangerous condition is created.
with grounding-type receptacles and for branch
Structural elements that are uncovered during the course of
circuits that do not have an equipment grounding
the alteration and that are found to be unsound or dangerous
conductor in the branch circuitry, the grounding con-
shall be made to comply with the applicable requirements of
ductor of a grounding type receptacle outlet shall be
permitted to be grounded to any accessible point on
the grounding electrode system, or to any accessible
AJ501.5 Electrical equipment and wiring.
point on the grounding electrode conductor, as
allowed and described in Chapters 33 through 42.
AJ501.5.1 Materials and methods.
All newly installed
electrical equipment and wiring relating to work done in
any work area shall comply with the materials and methods
requirements of Chapters 33 through 42.
Electrical equipment and wiring in newly
installed partitions and ceilings shall comply with all
AJ401.1 Materials and methods.
The work shall comply
applicable requirements of Chapters 33 through 42.
with the materials and methods requirements of this code.
AJ501.5.2 Electrical service.
Service to the dwelling unit
AJ401.2 Door and window dimensions.
Minor reductions in
shall be a minimum of 100 ampere, three-wire capacity and
the clear opening dimensions of replacement doors and win-
service equipment shall be dead front having no live parts
dows that result from the use of different materials shall be
exposed whereby accidental contact could be made. Type
allowed, whether or not they are permitted by this code.
“S” fuses shall be installed when fused equipment is used.
AJ401.3 Interior finish.
Wood paneling and textile wall cov-
Existing service of 60 ampere, three-wire
erings used as an interior finish shall comply with the flame
capacity, and feeders of 30 ampere or larger two- or
spread requirements of Section R315.
three-wire capacity shall be accepted if adequate for the
Unreinforced masonry buildings
AJ501.5.3 Additional electrical requirements.
located in Seismic Design Categories D2 or E shall have
work area includes any of the following areas within a
parapet bracing and wall anchors installed at the roofline
dwelling unit, the requirements of Sections AJ501.5.3.1
whenever a reroofing permit is issued. Such parapet bracing
and wall anchors shall be of an approved design.
AJ501.5.3.1 Enclosed areas.
All enclosed areas other
than closets, kitchens, basements, garages, hallways,
laundry areas and bathrooms shall have a minimum of
two duplex receptacle outlets, or one duplex receptacle
outlet and one ceiling or wall type lighting outlet.
AJ501.1 Newly constructed elements.
AJ501.5.3.2 Kitchen and laundry areas.
constructed elements, components and systems shall comply
shall have a minimum of two duplex receptacle outlets.
Laundry areas shall have a minimum of one duplex
receptacle outlet located near the laundry equipment and
installed on an independent circuit.
1. Openable windows may be added without requiring
compliance with the light and ventilation require-
Ground fault circuit interruption shall be provided on
2003 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE
newly installed receptacle outlets if required by Chapters
AJ501.5.3.4 Lighting outlets.
At least one lighting
outlet shall be provided in every bathroom, hallway,
stairway, attached garage and detached garage with elec-
tric power to illuminate outdoor entrances and exits, and
in utility rooms and basements where these spaces are
used for storage or contain equipment requiring service.
Clearance for electrical service
equipment shall be provided in accordance with Chap-
All reconfigured spaces intended for
occupancy and all spaces converted to habitable or occupiable
space in any work area shall be provided with ventilation in
AJ601.1 Stairways, handrails and guards.
Stairways within the work area shall
be provided with illumination in accordance with Section
Every required exit stairway that
has three or more risers; is part of the means of egress for
any work area; and is not provided with at least one hand-
rail, or in which the existing handrails are judged to be in
danger of collapsing, shall be provided with handrails de-
signed and installed in accordance with Section R311 for
the full length of the run of steps on at least one side.
Every open portion of a stair, landing
or balcony that is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the
floor or grade below; is part of the egress path for any work
area; and is not provided with guards or in which the exist-
ing guards are judged to be in danger of collapsing, shall be
provided with guards designed and installed in accordance
AJ601.2 Wall and ceiling finish.
The interior finish of walls
and ceilings in any work area shall comply with the require-
ments of Section R315. All existing interior finish materials
that do not comply with those requirements shall be removed
or shall be treated with an approved fire retardant coating in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions to secure
compliance with the requirements of this section.
AJ601.3 Separation walls.
Where the work area is in an
attached dwelling unit, all walls separating dwelling units that
are not continuous from the foundation to the underside of the
roof sheathing shall be constructed to provide a continuous
fire separation using construction materials consistent with
the existing wall or complying with the requirements for new
structures. Work shall only be required to be performed on the
side of the wall of the dwelling unit that is part of the work
2003 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE
International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering TechnologyOn line: ISSN 2225-9686; Print ISSN 2225-9678Vol.2, No.2 (2012) pp(120-127)www.ijaset.com Effect Of Pleurotus Ostreatus On Hyperglycemia, DNA Damage And Chromosomes Aberrations Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203 Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia, ABSTRACT Some Pleurotus ostr
Tai Chi, also known as Tai Chi Chuan, was handed down from different generations since its creation by ChangSan-Feng. It was during the Sung Dynasty that this was introduced and from that moment on, there werenumerous accounts of the form. The form, or kung chia in Chinese language, are the different movements made through Tai Chi. One of the mostcommon and famous form is the manipulation of the