American College of Gastroenterology Digestive Disease Specialists Committed to Quality in Patient Care Common Gastrointestinal Problems A Consumer Health Guide
but there is little evidence to suggest that stress is a major
cause for ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease.
Ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease are two types of
Examination of the colon by colonoscopy is
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). The large intestine
commonly performed in order to determine the presence
(colon) can be inflamed in ulcerative colitis, involving the
of ulcerative colitis or Crohns colitis and is also helpful in
inner lining of the colon, or by Crohns disease, which
judging the severity and extent of the disease. The
extends the inflammation deeper into the intestine wall.
examination requires that your colon be cleansed with one
Crohns disease can also involve the small intestine (ileitis),
of several laxative preparations. Sufficient sedation is
or can involve both the small and large intestine
given to keep you comfortable during the procedure. A
flexible tube is inserted into the rectum and advanced
through the colon. Biopsies of the bowel lining are usually
performed for diagnostic purposes and color photographs
are often obtained so that comparison with previous or
future examinations can be accomplished.
IBD is a true inflammation of the intestine which can
Barium x-rays of the upper and lower gastrointestinal
result in bleeding, fever, elevation of the white blood cell
tracts are also useful for establishing the diagnosis. The
count, as well as diarrhea and cramping abdominal pain.
barium is administered by mouth or rectally and x-rays are
The abnormalities in IBD can be visualized by barium x-ray
obtained in order to determine if the small intestine or
or colonoscopy. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a set of
symptoms resulting from spasm or abnormal function of
the small and large bowel. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome is
characterized by crampy abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or
constipation, but is not accompanied by fever, bleeding or
an elevated white blood cell count. Examination by
Ulcerative colitis may lead to chronic bleeding,
colonoscopyor barium x-ray reveals no abnormal findings.
diarrhea, and anemia. Crohns disease sometimes results
in progressive narrowing of the small intestine leading to
increasing crampy abdominal pain and possibly abscess
There is no single explanation for the development of
formation, the accumulation of pus outside the intestine.
IBD. A prevailing theory holds that a process, possibly viral,
Crohns disease may cause persistent diarrhea and fever
bacterial, or allergic, initially inflames the small or large
intestine and, depending on genetic predisposition, results
in the development of antibodies which chronically
attack the intestine, leading to inflammation.
Approximately 10 percent of patients with IBD have a close
family member (parent, sibling, child) with the disease.
Various formulations of 5-ASA, a drug which has
been used to treat IBD for over 50 years, are available as
oral preparations, suppositories, and enemas. These are
Emotional stress due to family, job or social pressures
often one of the first drugs used to treat IBD.
may result in worsening of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome
For More Information about Digestive Health and GI Conditions
Call the American College of Gastroenterology Hotline at 1-800-978-7666
or visit our Website at http://www.acg.gi.org
Corticosteroid therapy, such as prednisone or
hydrocortisone, are given when the 5-ASA products are
insufficient to control inflammation. These drugs can be
given orally, rectally as suppositories or enemas, or
Crohns disease of the small or large intestine can be
treated surgically for complications such as obstruction,
If you do not respond adequately to these programs,
abscess, or failure to respond adequately to treatment. The
drugs which suppress the bodys ability to make antibodies
disease may recur at some time after the operation.
against the disease (known as anti-immune therapy) are
Ulcerative colitis is cured after the entire colon is
used. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are the
removed. This surgery, in the past, required an ileostomy
two most commonly used drugs for anti-immune therapy.
(the lower small intestine is brought out to the abdominal
wall and an appliance is worn to collect the output). A recent
surgical procedure which avoids the need for an external
Sulfasalazine, the initial 5-ASA product, may cause
nausea, indigestion or headache in about 15 percent of
patients. The newer drugs have fewer side effects. Chronic
corticosteroid therapy can lead to fluid retention and high
blood pressure, some rounding of the face and softening of
the bones similar to osteoporosis. These complications
usually prompt attempts to discontinue corticosteroid
treatment as soon as possible. The anti-immune drugs
require periodic monitoring of the blood count since some
patients will develop a low white blood cell count. These
drugs, however, are well-tolerated in most patients.
Physicians prefer to maintain good nutrition for those
diagnosed with IBD. If you are responding well to medical
management you can often eat a reasonably unrestricted diet.
A low-roughage diet is often suggested for those prone to
diarrhea after meals. If you appear to be milk sensitive
(lactose intolerant), you are advised to either avoid milk
products or use milk to which the enzyme lactase has been
Early and proper treatment often results in considerable
improvement in your condition. Most patients with treated
IBD are productive and functioning individuals. A small
percentage of those with ulcerative colitis and a larger
percentage of those with Crohns disease will eventually
CANDIDATO A CONCEJAL DEL MUNICIPIO SUCRE Nombres y Apellidos: Yasmin Yarlene Blanco Fecha y Lugar de Nacimiento: , 23 de diciembre de 1968. Caracas Edo. Civil: Soltera Residencia: Urb. Terrazas de Guaicoco, Conjunto Los Jabillos, Torre E, Apto. 72 Profesión: Analista de RRHH Experiencia Laboral: 18 años en el área ee RRHH Experiencia Política : Dirigente Vecinal
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